Monday, January 31, 2011

Exodus 25:1 - Exodus 40:38: Why such long and technical description of The Tabernacle is important ?

Many people who read and study Pentateuch always wonder why all of these boring, minuscule and seemingly unimportant, irrelevant technical details of the Tabernacle take such a large portion of the Book of Exodus.

As I have pointed out on many occasions, the answer to this extremely important question is right in the original text.

Let's take a look at Exodus 25:8

8 And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. [KJV]


8 And they have made for Me a sanctuary, and I have tabernacled in their midst [YLT]

8 Thus they will make for Me a sanctuary, and I will tabernacle in their midst. [CLV]
8 wə‘āśû lî miqədāš wəšāḵanətî bəṯwōḵām:  [tr] 
‎8 ‏וְעָ֥שׂוּ לִ֖י מִקְדָּ֑שׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֖י בְּתוֹכָֽם׃

This verse implies, that if we want to have God's presence to dwell[ושכנתי] among us, WE [ועשו] must build Him a proper House [לקרשי].

This means that all of these technical details are provided to us for a reason. This means that it is US who will have to build a place for God to dwell among us!

It does not matter if it is going to be a Temple, a House, or a Tabernacle. What matters is that these particular specifications provided in the original text are included and accounted for in the design of this particular dwelling.

It is up to US to build the dwelling for God's presence. The dwelling of God is not going to magically appear out of nowhere or descent from Heavens in a ready-to-use state.

It is OUR responsibility to build proper, righteous dwelling for One God. No one else's !!!

Only then He will be willing to dwell in our midst. And since it is WE who are required to build Him His dwelling, all of these technical details of the Tabernacle description are essential and indispensable  if we ever hope to accomplish this task.

We are very fortunate to have these specifications of the God's dwelling available to us. Therefore, it is critical to learn and properly understand them.

Exodus 25:12 - Footings of the Ark of The Covenant - Part 2

I just wanted to direct your attention to several other images of the Ark of The Covenant replica that I have found on the same website (The Replica Prop Forum) - this thread.

This one shows nice angle at the actual "ark" part of the Ark of The Covenant. I think if the Ark indeed had legs (footings) that kept it off the ground, they would indeed be similar to what is shown on this image. In other words, these "footings" of the Ark would have been "round"(cut-out) [miqəṣō‘ōṯ] (remember the Corner Boards).

Here is another view upon the "ark" part of the Ark of The Covenant based on this replica model. As far as I can tell, if anything, these "footings" of the Ark would be about ~0.15 cubits (~6.85cm or ~2.7 inches) in diameter.

And, as I have shown in my previous post, these round "footings" of the Ark would correspond to two (2) round Corner Boards of the Western Wall of the of the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle, and to the two(2) out of five (5) Outer Pillars of the Eastern Side of the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle. Like so:

Last, but not least, I wanted to show you similarities between the Ark of The Covenant and the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle, as well as a bit of math that is behind these two parts:
  1. Ark of The Covenant Lid with Cherubim (Kapporeth) corresponds to the First Covering (embroided with Cherubim) of the framework of the Tabernacle. Compare Exodus 25:17-22 with Exodus 26:1-6.
  2. Ark of The Covenant had been made of Shittim Wood overlayed with gold, so was the framework. Compare Exodus 25:10-11 with Exodus 26:15 and Exodus 26:29.
  3. Ark of The Covenant had golden Rings, so did the framework. Compare Exodus 25:12 with Exodus 26:29
  4. Ark of The Covenant had gold plated Staves, the framework had gold plated Bars (notice the slight difference in terms used). Compare Exodus 25:13-15 with Exodus 26:26-29
  5. There are interesting proportional connection between the dimensions of the Ark and the dimensions of the framework. For example, 1.5 cubits of the width of the Ark correspond well with the 10 cubits of the width (Western Wall) of the framework. 1.5 cubits of the height of the Ark correspond well with the 10 cubits of height (height of the Boards) of the framework. Round "footings" of the Ark correspond to the round corner boards and pillars of the framework. E.t.c.
  6. If we assume that, it can be easily seen that if 1.5 cubits of the width of the Ark is proportionate to the 10 cubits of the width of the framework, then the round "footings" of the Ark will be proportionate to the 1 cubit round corner boards and pillars of the framework, effectively making each of the round "footings" of the Ark = [1.5 x 1] / 10 = 0.15 cubits. Just like I pointed out earlier.
  7. The "footings" of the Ark would most likely "mimic" the round parts of the framework, which means that these "footings" would have to be hollow inside, just like the Corner Boards and Pillars of the framework. 

Sunday, January 30, 2011

Exodus 25:12 - Did the Ark of The Covenant have Legs (Footings) ?

One detail of Exodus 25:12 raises a very interesting question: Did the Ark of The Covenant have Legs (Feet) to hold it off the ground ? 

At this point I'm still trying to figure out if it was possible or not, but for now I just wanted to take a look at this verse and provide you with some interesting observations:

Exodus 25:12 
12 And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.

12 ‏וְיָצַ֣קְתָּ לּ֗וֹ אַרְבַּע֙ טַבְּעֹ֣ת זָהָ֔ב וְנָ֣תַתָּ֔ה עַ֖ל אַרְבַּ֣ע פַּעֲמֹתָ֑יו וּשְׁתֵּ֣י טַבָּעֹ֗ת עַל־צַלְעוֹ֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ת וּשְׁתֵּי֙ טַבָּעֹ֔ת עַל־צַלְע֖וֹ הַשֵּׁנִֽית׃

As you can see, the expression in question here is אַרְבַּ֣ע פַּעֲמֹתָ֑יו [arəba‘ pa‘ămōṯāyw], which is usually translated as "four corners", "four feet" or "four footings".

Since I'm not sure myself what it means, so far I was usually depicting the Ark of the Covenant as a pure rectangular object, without any extra parts on its corners. Like so:

Here is a gray scale rendering of the above image, so that you can see corners of the Ark more easily:

However, if you remember, the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle was not a purely rectangular structure. It had Two (2) round Corner Boards on its West Side, Four (4) round Inner Pillars and Five (5) round Outer Pillars. Like so:

Now, if we were to remove Four (4) Inner Pillars and 3 out of 5 Outer Pillars, we would end up with this structure:

Of'course, the east side (to the right on this image) of the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle would be covered with the Entrance Curtain (Masach) but I do not show it here for illustrative purposes.

Assuming that the Ark of The Covenant would indeed have four legs (footings) it would most likely look like so (compare it to the the images above):

And here is a full color rendering of the Ark of The Covenant with Four Legs "integrated" into its main body: 

If you still did not yet notice the similarities between the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle and the Ark, here is a little schematic diagram so that you can get a hint of what I'm trying to point out here:

As you can see from the image above, it is quite possible that the Ark of The Covenant indeed had Four (4) Footings at each of its corners. Not only these four feet provided necessary support for the Ark to keep it off the ground, but also these "four feet" were also incorporated into the design of the framework of the Tabernacle. After all, the Ark was indeed a miniature copy of the Tent of the Tabernacle, so it is quite possible that my reasoning presented above has a certain degree of plausibility.

Of'course, at this point it is just my speculation, since there are certain issues that still need to be resolved as far as the design of the Ark the the Tent go. But as far as I can tell, design of the Ark is indeed connected with the design of other parts of the Tabernacle, so it is very important to take these similarities into account.

Friday, January 28, 2011

Exodus 25:11 - Gold Overlay of the Ark of The Covenant (and other parts of the Tabernacle)

Most furniture pieces and parts of the Tabernacle were either made of pure gold or were overlayed with gold. I have already tried to discuss the purpose, effects and technology used to do this in my previous posts (i.e here and here), but I felt that without a good, real-life example it will be difficult to truly appreciate the benefits and beauty of this detail.

Therefore, I would like to direct your attention to the gold overlay of the Ark of The Covenant (as say, Exodus 25:11, Exodus 25:13, Exodus 25:17, e.t.c specify), and what it would look like on the real-life replica of the Ark.

The images below are from The Replica Prop Forum, from this thread. There are plenty more images and commentaries there, so I highly recommend that you visit it and check it out.

Here an image of a life size replica the Ark of The Covenant:

On this image you can see how the Ark of The Covenant looks like without its gold overlay:

But on the images below you can see the beautiful transformation of the Ark once it was overlayed with Gold. The top part of the image is the most interesting, as the bottom part of this image shows less beautiful and smaller scale model.
And on this image you can see the Gold Overlay of the Ark in all its glory and details. Please pay special attention to the reflections that would result from overlaying the Ark with gold.

As far as I understand, this replica was made by using Golden Chrome finishing, which is very close to the real thing, therefore what you see on this image is also very close to the real overlay of the Ark of The Covenant:

And even though these particular images depict a fairly inaccurate representation of the Ark of The Covenant, one can easily appreciate what a little bit of gold and a little bit of an artistic skill can do to transform seemingly ugly wooden chest into The Ark that would be worthy of holding The Covenant of One God.

P.S. According to this article (an authoritative opinion that I tend to agree with), the thickness of gold overlay for all parts of the Tabernacle was most likely around ~0.02cm as this would be the most reasonable value considering all parameters specified in the original text, such as quantity and quality of available gold, load carrying and technological capabilities of wandering Israelites, e.t.c

Thursday, January 27, 2011

Exodus 26:1-14 - Mystical opinion about the Four Coverings of the Framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle

Just a little post scriptum to my previous post on the diagram of the Coverings of the Tabernacle:

Check out this web site (called "The Body Temple Book") and this YouTube Channel for more information, but for now just look at my diagram and one of the images from that web site:



 The most interesting here is the First Covering and the Forth Covering (Tachash Covering)...

And this is the first video from the channel mentioned above, that contains explanations e.t.c:

Exodus 26:1-14 - Diagram of all Four (4) Coverings of the Mishkan

Here is a diagram of all four (4) Coverings that covered gold plated wooden framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle:

Parts are as follows (from left to right):
  1. Cherubim Covering (First Covering), that was made out of 10 separate sheets of fabric (Exodus 26:1-5)
  2. 50 Golden Taches (Clasps) that connected two sets of five sheets each of the First Covering (Exodus 26:6)
  3. Goat's Hair Covering (Second Covering), that was made out of 11 separate sheets of fabric (Exodus 26:7-10)
  4. 50 Copper Taches (Clasps) that connected two sets of five and six sheets each of the Second Covering (Exodus 26:11)
  5. Red Ram's Skins Covering (Third Covering), probably made out of as many separate pieces of fabric as the First Covering (Exodus 26:14)
  6. Tachash[dark?] Skins Covering (Forth Covering), probably made out of several separate pieces of fabric as well (Exodus 26:14)
Please see this page for the latest diagrams of the Tabernacle Coverings and other Tabernacle parts.

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Exodus 30:17-21 - Exploded Diagram of The Copper Laver (Kiyor) Parts

This is an exploded schematic diagram of the Copper Laver (Kiyor). This diagram shows all parts that the Laver consisted of and that are explicitly mentioned in the original text:

Parts are as follows (approximetely from top to bottom):
  1. Copper Laver (Exodus 30:18)
  2. Copper Foot (Stand) of the Laver (Exodus 30:18)
And here is a complete full color rendering of the Copper Laver filled with water, so that you can what all the parts shown on the digram above looked like once they were put together: 

Please see this page for the latest diagrams of the Copper Laver and other Tabernacle artefacts and their parts.

Exodus 30:1-10 - Exploded Diagram of The Altar of Incense Offering (Mizbeach ha-Ketoret) Parts

This is an exploded schematic diagram of the Gold plated Altar of Incense (Mizbeach ha-Ketoret). This diagram shows all parts that the Altat consisted of and that are explicitly mentioned in the original text:


Parts are as follows (approximetely from top to bottom):
  1. High Priest's Copper Censer (Exodus 30:6-10 and Leviticus 16:12-13)
  2. Solid gold Crown of the Altar (Exodus 30:3)
  3. Gold plated Altar of Incense with Four Horns (Exodus 30:2-3)
  4. Two solid gold Rings for the Staves (Exodus 30:4)
  5. Two gold plated Staves to carry the Altar of Incense (Exodus 30:5)
And this is a complete full color rendering of the Altar of Incense with all the parts shown on the diagram above:

Please see this page for the latest diagrams of the Altar of Incense and other Tabernacle artefacts and their parts.

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Exodus 27:1-8 - Exploded Diagram of The Altar of Burnt Offering (Mizbeach) Parts

This is an exploded schematic diagram of the Copper Altar of Burnt Offering (Mizbeach). This diagram shows all parts that the Altat consisted of and that are explicitly mentioned in the original text:

Parts are as follows (approximetely from top to bottom and left to right)

  1. Copper plated Altar with 4 Horns (Exodus 27:1-2 and Exodus 27:8)
  2. The Copper Grate (Exodus 27:4-5)
  3. Four (4) Copper Rings that were upon the Grate (Exodus 27:4)
  4. Two Copper plated Staves to carry the Altar of Burnt Offering (Exodus 27:6-7)
  5. Copper Sprinkling Bowls (Exodus 27:3)
  6. Copper Ash Pans (Exodus 27:3)
  7. Copper Fire (coal) Pans (Exodus 27:3)
  8. Copper Flesh Hooks (Exodus 27:3)
  9. Copper Cleaning Brushes (Exodus 27:3 and Numbers 4:13)
  10. Copper Shovels (Exodus 27:3)
And here is a full color rendering of the Altar of the Burnt Offering with all the parts that are shown on the diagram above: 
 
Please see this page for the latest diagrams of the Copper Altar of Burnt Offering and other Tabernacle artefacts and parts.

Exodus 25:31-40 - Exploded Diagram of The Golden Lampstand (Menorah) Parts

This is an exploded schematic diagram of Golden Lampstand (Menorah). This diagram shows all parts that the Lampstand consisted of and that are explicitly mentioned in the original text:

Parts are as follows (approximetely from top to bottom and left to right)

  1. 7 Golden directional Lamps (Exodus 25:37)
  2. The Golden Lampstand (Exodus 25:31-36)
  3. Golden Oil Pans to add Oil to the Lamps (Exodus 25:38)
  4. Golden "Tweezers" to handle the Lamps (Exodus 25:38)
  5. Golden Oil Jars to store Oil for the Lamps (Numbers 4:9)

And this supplementary schematic diagram to the one above provides detailed view of the parts of just the Lampstand (Exodus 25:31-36, #2), so that you can better see all of the small pieces of the Lampstand that may not be clearly visible on the first main diagram.

And here is a full color rendering of the Lampstand based on the above diagrams:


Please see this page for the latest diagrams of the Golden Lampstand and other Tabernacle artefacts and parts.

Monday, January 24, 2011

Exodus 25:23-30 - Exploded Diagram of The Table of Shewbread Parts

This is an exploded schematic diagram of The Table of Shewbread. This diagram shows all parts that the Table of Shewbread consisted of and that are explicitly mentioned in the original text:

Parts are as follows (approximately from top to bottom): 
  1. 12 Loafs of the Shewbread (Exodus 25:30)
  2. Solid gold Table Utensils: Spoons, Forks, Plates, Graphines and Cups (Exodus 25:29)
  3. Solid gold Crown of the Table (Exodus 25:24)
  4. Gold plated Table Top (Exodus 25:23-24)
  5. Four, most likely round, legs for the Table Top (Exodus 25:26)
  6. Solid gold Crown for the Table Enclosure (Exodus 25:25)
  7. Gold plated Enclosure (Exodus 25:25)
  8. Four solid gold Rings to hold the Table Staves (Exodus 25:26-27)
  9. Two gold plated Staves to carry the Table (Exodus 25:28)
And here is a full color rendering of the Table of Shewbread with all the parts shown on the above diagram:

Please see this page for the latest Tabernacle diagrams and illustrations.

Exodus 25:10-22 - Exploded Diagram of The Ark of The Covenant Parts

Here is an exploded schematic diagram of the Ark of The Covenant. This diagram shows all parts that the Ark consisted of and that are mentioned in the original text:


Parts are as follows (approximately from top to bottom):
  1. The Mercy Seat with Two Cherubim made out of solid gold (Exodus 25:17-20)
  2. Two Stone Tablets with the Ten Eternal Commandments (Exodus 25:16)
  3. Solid gold Molding (Crown) of the Ark (Exodus 25:11)
  4. The gold plated Shittim wood Ark (Exodus 25:10-11)
  5. Four Golden Rings of the Ark to hold the Staves (Exodus 25:12)
  6. Two gold plated Staves to carry the Ark of The Covenant (Exodus 25:13-15)
And here is the full color rendering of the Ark of The Covenant with all its parts shown above:

Please see this page for the latest Tabernacle diagrams and Tabernacle illustrations.

Sunday, January 23, 2011

Updated Illustrations for Corner Boards of the Tabernacle (Exodus 26:23-24) and Four Corners of an Outer Court of an Ezekiel Temple (Ezekiel 46:21-22)

I have updated my illustrations for my article on the Corner Boards of the Tabernacle. Please see this page for a complete text with the new illustrations.

First updated Illustration shows two bended regular boards before "twinning" [ṯammîm] (Exodus 26:23):
The Second updated Illustration shows the resulting round Corner Board after "twinning"(Exodus 26:24) and its resulting dimensions:

The Third Illustration shows Western Wall (Exodus 26:25) of the framework of the Tent of the Tabernacle and both Corner Boards:


And last, Forth Illustration, shows possible advantage from translating the expression [məquṣə‘ōṯ] as "bend" instead as traditional "corner". As you can see from the illustration below, and as my article points out, the so-called "enclosed courts" (sometimes translated as "perfume courts") that were 30x40 cubits rectangles, would be easily inscribed into each of Four (4) "bends" (round corners) of an Outer Court of the Temple described in Ezekiel 46:21:

Friday, January 21, 2011

Q&A - What happened after the Tabernacle was fully assembled in Exodus?

After the Tabernacle was completely assembled and ready for service (as Exodus 40:17-33), the Pillar of Smoke covered the Tent of the Tabernacle (Exodus 40:34), like so:

And as Exodus 40:38 the Pillar (Cloud) of Smoke was upon the Tent of the Tabernacle during the day:

And just like the same verse states, the Pillar (Cloud) of Fire was upon the Tent of the Tabernacle during the night time:

Q&A - What was the purpose of the Golden Lampstand in Exodus 25 ?

The purpose of the Golden Lampstand (the Menorah) is outlined in the original text, primarily in Leviticus 24:1-4. Let's take a look:

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

2 Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamps to burn continually.

3 Without the vail of the testimony, in the tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron order it from the evening unto the morning before the LORD continually: it shall be a statute for ever in your generations.

4 He shall order the lamps upon the pure candlestick before the LORD continually.
‎1 ‏וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃

‎2 ‏צַ֞ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ שֶׁ֣מֶן זַ֥יִת זָ֛ךְ כָּתִ֖ית לַמָּא֑וֹר לְהַעֲלֹ֥ת נֵ֖ר תָּמִֽיד׃

‎3 ‏מִחוּץ֩ לְפָרֹ֨כֶת הָעֵדֻ֜ת בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד יַעֲרֹךְ֩ אֹת֨וֹ אַהֲרֹ֜ן מֵעֶ֧רֶב עַד־בֹּ֛קֶר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה תָּמִ֑יד חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃

‎4 ‏עַ֚ל הַמְּנֹרָ֣ה הַטְּהֹרָ֔ה יַעֲרֹ֖ךְ אֶת־הַנֵּר֑וֹת לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה תָּמִֽיד׃ פ

As you can see from these verses, the Lampstand [hammənōrâ] primary purpose was to hold 7 Golden Lamps [eṯ-hannērwōṯ], into which the Pure Olive Oil [šemen zayiṯ zāḵə] was to be put, so that the Lamps can provide continuous [tāmîḏ] light for the Tabernacle: from evening to morning(Exodus 27:21) and from morning until the evening (Exodus 30:7-8)...

The proper term for the Golden Lampstand is - The Lampstand of Light [אֶת־מְנֹרַ֤ת הַמָּאוֹר֙][eṯ-mənōraṯ hammā’wōr] (Numbers 4:9):

Thursday, January 20, 2011

Q&A - How big was the Menorah in th original Tabernacle ?

Unfortunately, I cannot answer this question right now. In fact, no one really can, as there had been no research done on this subject. Even traditional sources (i.e. Talmud Bavli, Menachoth 28b) not sure about even approximate dimensions of the Menorah and its parts and provide only approximate and rather speculative information.

However, logic dictates that the Menorah would have to be relatively tall so that its Lamps would not shine directly into the eyes of the priests serving in the Tent of the Tabernacle. This would mean that the height of the Menorah would have to be at least 4-5 cubits.

Also, as Exodus 25:37 and Numbers 8:2-3 specify, Lamps of the Menorah would have to, at least, illuminate the Table, especially when the priest would be standing right by it. This means that the branches spread of the Menorah would have to be about 4 cubits (wide), so as to provide maximum coverage of a 2 cubit wide Table from ~5-6 cubits away, while still allowing Menorah to stand vertically and not to fall down due to its weight imbalance.

Thus, the Menorah would look somewhat like so: 

And here is the rendering of the Menorah standing inside the Holy section of the Tent of The Tabernacle by its Southern wall:

Also, although this is just my guess, the Menorah had a shape of the "shittim" tree.

Q&A - Why was the lampstand by the south wall of Tabernacle ?

I have answered this question in this post related to the Table of Shewbread, but I would like to elaborate a little bit more as I think it is very important.

The Golden Lampstand (The Menorah) was placed by the Southern Wall of the Tent of the Mishkan because, just like the Table, it had everything to do with the astronomical orientation of the Tabernacle.

First of all, when placement of the Lampstand is described, two different expressions are used:
  1. In Exodus 26:35, expression תימנה [têmānâ] is used, usually translated directly as "southward/ toward the south"
  2. But in Exodus 40:24, expression נגבה [neḡəbâ] is used, which is usually translated as "Negev ward /toward the Negev", but sometimes (i.e Gen. 12:9) as "toward the south-rim".
Therefore, you can rely on these interesting facts and on the diagrams below to get an idea why the Menorah was by the Southern wall of the Tent of the Tabernacle:

Here is a Sun Path diagram from this web site:


And here is another Sun Path diagram from this web site::


And one more Sun Path diagram from this web site:
And here is the detailed Sun Path Chart (created with this applet) for the Tabernacle if it had been located in Shiloh, Israel:

So as you can see, the Menorah (Lampstand) was located by the Southern wall of the Tent of the Tabernacle because it would essentially "mimic" the location of the Sun, REGARDLESS of where the Tabernacle would have been located.

Therefore, the Menorah would shine (just like the Sun) from the Southern wall of the Tent upon the Northern Wall (where the Table stood). 

Here is a rendering to give you a better perspective on how these two artefacts were positioned relative to each other: 

You can also check out the links below for extensive information and tools regarding the Sun Path and Position details:

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Q&A - What color were the Pillars in the Tabernacle Courtyard ?

As you can see from the image below, 60 Pillars of the Courtyard were not overlayed with any precious metals and therefore had a color that of a Shittim Wood (whatever color that may be).

There are several reasons why Pillars of the Courtyard, unlike the Pillars of the Tent of the Tabernacle were wooden and were not overlayed:

1) According to Exodus 38:29 the total amount of donated copper was 70 Talents and 2400 Shekels. As the following verses of Exodus 38:30-31 specify, donated copper was used to make: 
  1. 5 Sockets of the 5 Entrance Pillars
  2. Copper Altar of Burnt Offering
  3. Copper Grate of the Altar of Burnt Offering
  4. Copper Utensils for the Altar of Burnt Offering
  5. 60 Sockets for the Courtyard Pillars
  6. Copper Pins for the Tent of the Tabernacle
  7. Copper Pins for the Courtyard of the Tabernacle
As you can see from the list above, donated copper was used to make many different parts of the Tabernacle.

Assuming that 60 Courtyard Sockets weighted 1 Talent each, just like the the Silver Sockets of the Boards of the Tent of the Tabernacle(Exodus 38:27), we would be left with 70-60=10 Talents of Copper (+2400 extra Shekels) to make all other things from the list above.

Now, assuming that the courtyard pillars were overlayed with copper only on the outside, with copper overlay thickness being 0.02cm and density of copper as 8930kg/m^3 , we would arrive to the following number of copper required to overlay all 60 Pillars:

2.286m * 1.436m *  0.0002m * 60 * 8930 kg/m^3 = ~350.303kg

Assuming weight of the Talent of Copper as 17kg, we would arrive to ~20 Talents of Copper required to overlay all 60 Pillars. Even if we assume that the Talent of Copper weighted 34kg, we would still get ~10.29 Talents - a value that is far above of what we have left and available.

So, as you can see, even with a very rough approximation and rough calculations, it is extremely clear, that the Courtyard Pillars COULD NOT have been overlayed with Copper.

And since neither they could not have been overlayed with the donated Silver or Gold (for the very same reason), we have no other choice but to admit that the Pillars of the Courtyard were made ONLY of the Shittim Wood.

2) Another reason that the Courtyard Pillars were made out of Shittim Wood is that the original text does not specify that the Pillars were overlayed in any manner. For example,  compare Exodus 26:37 and Exodus 27:17 or Exodus 36:38 and Exodus 38:17, e.t.c.

3) There was simply no need to overlay the Courtyard Pillars. Primary purpose of these Pillars was to support the Hangings of the Courtyard, so the Wooden Pillars were quite sufficient for this purpose.

Therefore, the Courtyard Pillars looked somewhat like this:

Here is the panoramic image of the Courtyard that you can check out to get a comprehensive idea:

Q&A - How many rooms were in Desert Tabernacle ?

The Tent of the Tabernacle was divided into two(2) rooms (sections): The Holy of Hollies(kodesh-ha-Kadoshim) and The Holy Place(kodesh).

Here is the diagram that shows these rooms. Holy of Hollies room marked blue and Holy Place marked green.

The Holy Place room was the main room, where most of the services of the Tabernacle were performed and it housed three artefacts: The Table of Shewbread, The Menorah and the Altar of Incense.

The Holy of Hollies was the most sacred room of the Tent of the Tabernacle, and housed only one artefact - the Ark of The Covenant.

You can check out this panoramic image for the more comprehensive view of the Holy Place room:

And you can check out this panoramic image for the more comprehensive view of the Holy of Hollies room:

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