Sunday, March 27, 2011

Set of traditional 3D Models of some parts of The Tabernacle.

I have found this web site that shows some of the pieces of The Tabernacle according to traditional interpretation. Compare it with my 3d models, which are based on the original Biblical text.

For example, here is the rendering of the Table of Shewbread from that web site:

Compare it to my 3d model of the Table:

Friday, March 25, 2011

Two interesting books on The Tabernacle

Here is a couple of very interesting books that I would highly recommend to check out:

The first book is a magnificent edition of the James Strong's "The Tabernacle of Israel in the desert".

Dating back to 1888, this book is of'course is far from the cutting edge of the Biblical scholarship and will reveal nothing new. However, due its amazing illustrations and certain useful insights, I would highly recommend to check it out, especially considering that due to its public domain status, you can do it for free.

Here is the short excerpt:
"Among the most important discoveries of the author under this head may be mentioned the form and adjustment of the "corner boards," a failure in which has led all previous interpreters astray at the foundation; the relation and application of the sixth goats'-hair curtain, which has never before been explained in conformity with the phraseology of the sacred text and the obvious needs of the case; the fitting size, the mode of suspension, and the peculiar folds of the colored curtains, with the position of the figures embroidered on them, and especially the distribution of their colors ; the shape and posture of the cherubim ; and the style of the various pieces of apparatus and costume, including the mysterious Urim and Thummim."

You can download a full PDF copy of the book from Founding Father's Faith Ministry web site.

And for comparison, here is a brand new book (2011) called "Rediscovering Mathematics: You Do the Math" by Shai Simonson, Ph.D.

The most interesting part of this book is Chapter 4, which is called "Thinking Like a Mathematician -- Lessons from a Medieval Rabbi", which is expanded version of this article that those of you who had been reading my blog could see for some time in my Important Articles section.

This book can serve as a prime example of how Bible can be the used as a source of mathematical knowledge that can be taught to children and adults alike.


Since the book is brand new, there is probably only limited preview available. However, you can check out the aforementioned article, Book Summary and this PDF with full Table of Content of the book to get an idea of what it is about.

And here is also an excerpt from the book's description from the Amazon web site link above:
"Topics range in difficulty and cover a wide range of historical periods, with some examples demonstrating how to uncover mathematics in everyday life, including: number theory and its application to secure communication over the Internet, the algebraic and combinatorial work of a medieval mathematician Rabbi, and applications of probability to sports, casinos, and gambling."
Please note that both of the books, among other things, are the most useful in understanding the design of the Corner Boards and the Courtyard of the Tabernacle.

Enjoy!

Dimensions of The Court of The Tabernacle Article (Exodus 27 and Exodus 38)

Here is a little formal article that I wrote about the Courtyard of the Mishkan. Just like with the Corner Boards, I recommend that you check it out, as well as this dedicated page and this section of my blog  for the most complete information on this subject.


Dimensions of The Court of The Tabernacle

by Aleksandr Sigalov


Chapters 27 and 38 of the Book of Exodus, among other things, describe the so-called Court of the Tabernacle [ḥăṣar hammišəkān], that surrounded the Tent of Appointment[’ōhel mwō‘ēḏ], the copper Laver[kîywōr] and the Altar of Burnt Offering[mizəbēḥa]. The Court was essentially a rectangular fence-like structure, that consisted of number of fabric sheets that were spread between equidistantly spaced wooden pillars.

Just like the corner boards of the framework of the Tent of Appointment, the dimensions of the Court of the Tabernacle have been subject to very long debate between Biblical scholars, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. And even though many theories have been proposed that tried to identify and put all of the elements of the Court together, up to this day no satisfactory solution had been found.

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to describe and compare every proposed theory within the scope of this article. Luckily this is not needed, as all of them rely on an incorrect reading of the original text, primarily from the verses of Exod 27.18, Exod 38.11 and Exod 38.13, and thus all of them, in their very essence, are fundamentally wrong.

Let's begin by recounting these problematic verses[1]:

The length of the court is a hundred by the cubit, and the breadth fifty by fifty, and the height five cubits, of twined linen, and their sockets are brass (Exod 27.18)
and at the north side, a hundred by the cubit, their pillars are twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets are silver; (Exod 38.11)

and at the east side eastward fifty cubits (Exod 38.13)

It seems clear from aforementioned verses, that the dimensions of the Court were 100 cubits along the length and 50 cubits along its width. Unfortunately, if you would now try to satisfy the rest of the description by positioning 20 Pillars along Court's North[2] and South sides[3], 10 Pillars along its West side[4] and 3 + 3 + 4 Pillars along its East Side (Gate Side)[5] you will see that this is simply impossible.

For detailed technical description of the problems that arise from such measurements of the Court, you can refer to the traditional commentaries such as Babylonian Talmud[6], Baraita [7] and Rashi[8]. Or to more modern, such as Soncino[9], Cassuto[10], Driver[11], and many others.

But if the dimensions of the Court were not 100x50 cubits, what were they ?

In order to figure it out, here is the table that lists all verses of Exod 27 an Exod 38 for each side of the Court that will help to greatly simplify comparison and understanding of the text:
Verse
Original Text [YLT 1862]
Verse
Original Text [YLT 1862]
South Side
Exod 27.9
And thou hast made the court of the tabernacle: for the south side southward, hangings for the court of twined linen, a hundred by the cubit [is] the length for the one side,
Exod 38.9
And he maketh the court; at the south side southward, the hangings of the court of twined linen, a hundred by the cubit,
North SideExod 27.11
and so for the north side in length, hangings of a hundred [cubits] in length, and its twenty pillars and their twenty sockets [are] of brass, the pegs of the pillars and their fillets [are] of silver.
Exod 38.11
and at the north side, a hundred by the cubit, their pillars [are] twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets [are] silver;
West Side Exod 27.12
And [for] the breadth of the court at the west side [are] hangings of fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.
Exod 38.12
and at the west side [are] hangings, fifty by the cubit; their pillars [are] ten, and their sockets ten; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets [are] silver;
East SideExod 27.13
And [for] the breadth of the court at the east side, eastward, [are] fifty cubits.
Exod 38.13
and at the east side eastward fifty cubits.


East Side - 1st flankExod 27.14
And the hangings at the side [are] fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three.
Exod 38.14
The hangings on the side [are] fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three,
East Side - 2nd flankExod 27.15
And at the second side [are] hangings fifteen [cubits], their pillars three, and their sockets three.
Exod 38.15
and at the second side at the gate of the court, on this and on that, [are] hangings, fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three;
East Side - Gate
Exod 27.16
And for the gate of the court a covering of twenty cubits, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen, work of an embroiderer; their pillars four, their sockets four.
Exod 38.18
And the covering of the gate of the court [is] the work of an embroiderer, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen; and twenty cubits [is] the length, and the height with the breadth five cubits, over-against the hangings of the court;
Summary
Exod 27.18
The length of the court [is] a hundred by the cubit, and the breadth fifty by fifty, and the height five cubits, of twined linen, and their sockets [are] brass,
Not Specified
Not Specified

But in order to make the meaning of the original text even more apparent, here is another, filtered, table that shows extracted information for each of the sides of the Court:
Verse
Part Measured
Value
Units of Measure
Verse
Part Measured
Value
Units of Measure
South Side
Exod 27.9
Hangings
100
CubitsExod 38.9
Hangings
100
Cubits
North SideExod 27.11
Hangings
100
Not SpecifiedExod 38.11
Not Specified
100
Cubits
West Side Exod 27.12
Hangings
50
CubitsExod 38.12
Hangings
50
Cubits
East SideExod 27.13
Not Specified
50
CubitsExod 38.13
Not Specified
50
Cubits
East Side - 1st flankExod 27.14
Hangings
15
CubitsExod 38.14
Hangings
15
Cubits
East Side - 2nd flankExod 27.15
Hangings
15
Not SpecifiedExod 38.15
Hangings
15
Cubits
East Side - GateExod 27.16
Hangings
20
CubitsExod 38.18
Hangings
20, 5x5
Cubits
SummaryExod 27.18
Hangings
100, 50x50, 5
CubitsNot Specified
Not Specified
Not Specified
Not Specified

As you can clearly see from this table, all measurements of the Court of the Tabernacle are performed in "cubits of hangings", not in "cubits of length/width" !

This means, that the correct overall dimensions of the Court were larger than 100x50 cubits, namely - 120x60 cubits[12].

Therefore, the translation of the problematic verses of Exod 27.18, Exod 38.11 and Exod 38.13 should clearly reflect the correct meaning of the original text and be changed as follows:

Original:

The length of the court is a hundred by the cubit, and the breadth fifty by fifty, and the height five cubits, of twined linen, and their sockets are brass (Exod 27.18)

Changed:

The length of the court is a hundred by the cubit [of twined linen], and the breadth fifty by fifty [cubits of twined linen], and the height -  five cubits of twined linen; and their sockets are brass (Exod 27.18)
Original:

and at the north side, a hundred by the cubit, their pillars are twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets are silver; (Exod 38.11)
Changed:

and at the north side, a hundred by the cubit [of twined linen], their pillars are twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets are silver; (Exod 38.11)

Original:

and at the east side eastward fifty cubits (Exod 38.13)

Changed:


and at the east side eastward fifty cubits [of twined linen] (Exod 38.13)

The translation of the other verses must also be reviewed and fine-tuned accordingly, depending on the language of the translation, to reflect the correct meaning of the original text and proper units of measure of the parts of the Court of the Tabernacle.



NOTES

1. I'm using 1862 Young's Literal Translation throughout the article because I consider it the most  accurate English translation of the original masoretic hebrew text, although use of any other  translation  will yield the same results.

2. Exod 27.11 and Exod 38.11, YLT 1862

3. Exod 27.10 and Exod 38.10, YLT 1862

4. Exod 27.12 and Exod 38.12, YLT 1862

5. Exod 27.14-16, Exod 38.14-15 and Exod 38.19, YLT 1862

6. Babylonian Talmud, Sefer Moed, Tractate Eiruvin 23b and 2a-4b, any edition.

7. Robert S. Kirschner, Baraita de-melekhet ha-mishkan: a critical edition with introduction and translation, (West Orange, NJ: Hebrew Union College Press, 1992), 229-231

8. Commentary of Rashi on verses of Exodus 27:9-19 and Exodus 38:9-20, any edition

9. Abraham Cohen, The Soncino Chumash: the Five books of Moses, with Haphtaroth, (Hindhead, UK: Socino Press, 1947), 584-585

10. Umberto Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Exodus, (Skokie, IL: Varda Books, 2005), 365-368, 467-468

11. Rev. S.R. Driver, The Book of Exodus, (Skokie, IL: Varda Books, 2002),  293-295, 391-392

12. According to my calculations and most traditional opinions, each Pillar of the Court was 1 cubit wide. By equidistantly positioning the Pillars around the perimeter, the total measurements of the Court would be 100 cubits of Hangings + 20 cubits of Pillars = 120 cubits along its North and South sides (length) and 50 cubits of Hangings + 10 cubits of Pillars = 60 cubits along its West and East sides (width). Total perimeter of the Court Hangings would be equal to 100+50+100+50=300 cubits, and the total perimeter of the Court itself would be equal to 120+60+120+60=360 cubits.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Exodus 38:24-31 - Density and Weight ratios of the donated Gold, Silver and Copper

I wanted to perform ratio calculations to see if there are any interesting connection between the amounts of donated Gold, Silver and Copper for the Tabernacle.

I will be using the following values for my initial calculations: 
  1. Density of Gold - 19320 kg/m^3 (theoretical)
  2. Density of Silver - 10490 kg/m^3 (theoretical)
  3. Density of Copper - 8930 kg/m^3 (theoretical)
  4. 1 Talent = 3000 Shekels = 6000 Bekah = 60000 Gerah (Exodus 30:13)
The totals of the donated metals as outlined in Exodus 38:24, Exodus 38:25 and Exodus 38:29 are as follows:
  1. Gold - 29 Talents 730 Shekels
  2. Silver - 100 Talents 1775 Shekels
  3. Copper - 70 Talents 2400 Shekels
Converting all totals to Shekels would yield:
  1. Gold - (29 * 3000) + 730 = 87000 + 730 = 87730 Shekels
  2. Silver - (100 * 3000) + 1775 = 300000 + 1775 = 301775 Shekels
  3. Copper - (70 * 3000) + 2400 =  212400 Shekels
Therefore, in Shekels, the ratios are as follows:
  1. Based on Gold - [1.00000 to 3.43981 to 2.42106]
  2. Based on Silver - [0.29071 to 1.00000 to 0.70383]
  3. Based on Copper - [0.41304 to 1.42078 to 1.00000]
And the defined densities ratios are as follows:
  1. Based on Gold - [1.00000 to 0.59296 to 0.46221]
  2. Based on Silver - [1.84175 to 1.00000 to 0.85128]
  3. Based on Copper - [2.16349 to 1.17469 to 1.00000]
At this point, I do not see anything in these numbers. I was hoping that the weight ratios will be proportional to those of densities of Gold, Silver and Copper. But unfortunately this is not the case, and there are no any other apparent relationships between these numbers. At least not those that I could see right now...

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Two new interesting articles about the Mercy Seat and the Menorah

Two new interesting articles had appeared on the web site of the Bar-Ilan University's Parashat Hashavua Study Center.

The first article called "The Weight of the Ark Cover" by Uri Cohen is related to parashat pekudei, and dealing with the weight and possible construction of the Mercy Seat of the Ark of The Covenant. This article is not as accurate as the one by Elihu Schatz, but it does provide an interesting opinion on the matter. Here is a short excerpt:
"How can this tradition be reconciled with the Talmudic tradition that the ark cover was one span thick? What did Ibn Ezra have in mind when he added that it was "both long and wide"?

The solution appears to be in a similar observation made by Tashbetz, who remarked that it was not logical to claim that the thickness of the ark cover was one span, "since the thickness was only at the edges, while all of the ark cover was thin." In other words, the ark cover was in the shape of an inverted box, hollow, with its opening facing down, and only along the sides was it one span high (see sketch below). According to this view, it could have weighed no more than one talent, or 42 kilograms, and it could have been one span thick, but only along the edges, while the rest of it was thin."
The second article called "On the Making of the Menorah" by David Shneur is related to parashat vayakhel, and dealing with the possible shape of the Menorah. Here is the short excerpt:
"The late Prof. Elazar Touitou has repeatedly stressed the importance of being aware of the historical setting for our understanding of exegetical works.  Several of his articles on this subject deal with the historical setting of Rashbam's times and of others in Rashi's era.  Prof. Abraham Grossman mentions Touitou's findings in his articles and books on Rashi and stresses the importance of studying Rashi's commentary in the light of the momentous changes taking place among the Jews and gentiles of that era:  "One cannot fully appreciate the work of men of letters and public leaders without being aware of the social and cultural setting of their times."

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Exodus 26:17 - Tenons of the Boards of the Tabernacle (Review)

I think I have extensively covered this subject in my previous posts, particularly in this one. However, I wanted to elaborate even more and show you the closest, real-life model of what the Boards of the Tabernacle and their Tenons might have looked like.

What you see on this first picture, is the sample (courtesy of Home Depot) of Genesis American Cherry Natural Engineered Real Hardwood Flooring Plank (yes, that description is pretty long, I know ;)

This particular sample is 3/8in (~9.525mm thick) which is very close to my approximation of the wood thickness of the Boards of the Tabernacle (0.0225 cubits - 0.02cm -0.02cm = 9.887mm).and it is made out of 5-ply cross grain engineered wood, which is in my opinion, is the most probable technique that with which the actual Tabernacle Boards were constructed. And even though some other approach might have been used, what you are looking at is as close as you can get to the real thing.

Another notable thing about this sample, is that it utilises a special interlocking mechanism on its sides. This is of the most importance to us as, in my opinion, this is exactly how the so-called "Tenons" described in Exodus 26:17 would look like. As you can see from this picture below, there are two(2) "Tenons" [literally - "Hands" (ידות) ]on each side of this sample, "set in order one against another" just like the Biblical text says. 

As you can see from this close-up view, each such "Tenon" indeed resembles a "Hand" of sorts, that would grab another "Hand" of another similar plank and form one joining.

As you can also see, this "Hand" is a part of the plank, which means that just like the original text says, these "Hands" were included in the dimensions and just like on this sample were probably around 3/8in wide (equal to the thickness of the wood of the Board.

And here is the most interesting part - the interlocking mechanism in action. Just like the text says, these "Tenons" or "Hands" were [מְשֻׁלָּבֹ֔ת אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֑הּ], which is translated as "set in order one against another", or " joined one unto another" or " being projected each to its fellow".

As you can see, this particular design of these "Hands" perfectly fits the all of the translations (and the original text of'course), allowing each such "Hand" grab one another, like so:

Locking in place and forming very rigid, strong bond between two adjacent Boards, like so:

And as you can see from this image, another major advantage of such joining system and this particular interlocking mechanism is that the seams are almost unnoticeable, allowing to create an illusion of single larger piece of wood. With proper manufacturing and matching of each piece, the joining can be improved even further.


For comparison, here are couple of similar samples with different interlocking mechanism (traditional mortise-tenon system), that shows an INCORRECT way of understanding the joining of the Boards of the Tabernacle:


As you can see from the image above and below, only one side of each such sample has a "Hand" (or Tenon), another side has groove. And even though such interlocking mechanism is also very good, it DOES NOT fit Biblical description and therefore - incorrect.

Last, but not least, here is another INCORRECT was of understanding the  "Tenons" mentioned in Exodus 26:17. This is a traditional explanation:


As you can see from this diagram, not only the Boards shown here are impossibly thick (1 cubit), but also the "Tenons" labeled here as "יד חקרש "are simply on the wrong side of the Board.

This is due to the incorrect traditional understanding and translation of the word (ידות) as "Pegs" (or "Feet") instead of "Hands". This is, of'course, simply preposterous and heretical treatment of the Holy text and here is why:

If the word  (ידות) [yāḏwōṯ] in Exodus 26:17 would indeed mean "Pegs", the word (יתדת) [yiṯəḏōṯ] would have been used as it does indeed in the description of the Courtyard Pillars Pegs (i.e Exodus 27:19).

Or, if the word  (ידות) [yāḏwōṯ] in Exodus 26:17 would imply "Feet", the word (רגליו) [raḡəlāyw] as in Exodus 25:26 would have been used.

So, as you can see, the traditional explanation of the "Tenons" of the Boards of the Tabernacle is outright  and obviously INCORRECT !!!


You may be asking yourself, if the word  (ידות) [yāḏwōṯ] in Exodus 26:17 indeed implies some form of an interlocking mechanism, would the Children of Israel posses the technology, skills and opportunity to make such intricate and seemingly hi-tech Boards?

Yes they most definitely would! Not only that, but like I mentioned on several occasions, the technology to make such Boards and interlocking mechanism is relatively simple and was well known in pre-exodus Egypt.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Level of technological development of pre-exodus Egypt

One very interesting fact that can be directly deduced from the Pentateuch, is the level of technological development of pre-exodus Egypt. I'm referring, of'course, to the 10 Plagues and the "competition" of sorts between Pharaoh's "magicians" ("sacred scribes" in some translations) and God.

The reason why it is important to understand it, is because it would help to get a glimpse not only at the technological level of Egyptian civilization, but also at the technological level of the Tabernacle and what it really represented.

Let's perform some very basic calculations that would allow us to uncover these stunning facts:

As you know from the verses of Exodus 7:14-12:51, there were ten(10) Plagues that God sent upon Egypt. However, if you would look at verses of Exodus 7:22 and Exodus 8:7, you will learn that "magicians" of Egypt could easily match God himself in creating first two(2) Plagues.

Fortunately for the Children of Israel, starting from verses of Exodus 8:18-19 we learn that Pharaos' "magicians", even though they have tried, could not recreated the rest of Plagues, and thus they had to give up. This leaves us with 8 Plagues that "magicians" could not recreate.

By doing simple calculations, we can now most certainly say that the technological development of pre-exodus Egypt was at an astounding (2/10)*100=20% of the power of God himself.

In other words, Egyptian "magicians" were only 5 (!!!) times less powerful then God. Simply amazing !

But how was it possible? How could Egyptian "magicians" achieve such incredible power? Were they not wicked men?

Well... yes they were! And that is the reason why they could not achieve all 100% of the power of God, that was later achieved by Children of Israel once they constructed The Tabernacle, and The Ark of The Covenant in particular.

Not only that, but the both Egyptian "magicians" and the Children of Israel relied upon what is today known as "science" (in general sense) that would allow them to achieve that power.

God, of'course, can undoubtedly control and outmatch any human endeavor if He would think that this is indeed needed for His divine plan (think the Tower of Babel). However, until He does, the world and God himself follow strict rules that God had set to begin with. And unless that changes, it is not beyond the capabilities of men, especially the righteous men, to achieve all this incredible power with which God endowed each and every human being from the beginning.

To wrap things up, I would like to offer you slightly modified and modernized translations of the verses of Exodus 7:11, Exodus 7:22 and Exodus 8:7 so that you can better appreciate the reasoning behind the text:

Exodus 7:11 

Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the illusionists; and the scientists of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their gadgets.

Exodus 7:22

And the scientists of Egypt did so with their gadgets: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.

Exodus 8:7

And the scientists did so with their gadgets, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.

Friday, March 11, 2011

Exodus 25:16 - Updated layout of the Ten Commandments

PLEASE SEE UPDATED AND COMPLETE VERSION HERE.

I have decided to update my overview of The Ten Commandments with the verses numbers and with the major astronomical events that correspond to each of the 5 related holy holidays


The Ten Commandments

Definitions:
Yahweh (יהוה) = Existing
Elohim (אלהים) = God
Mitzraim (מצרים) = Egypt

Left Hand that brings Riches and Honor

 
Proverbs 3:16


Right Hand that brings Long Life
Plague
Commandment
Holiday
Commandment
Plague
6
Death of the Livestock
(Exodus 9:6) 

Not you shall murder. (Exodus 20:13)

I

Pesach
Passover

(Leviticus 23:5)
(Life and Death)

Spring Equinox

I am Existing, your God who brought you out from a land of Egypt, from a house of servants. Not shall become to you gods other ones before Me. (Exodus 20:2-3)

Death of the Firstborn
(Exodus 12:29)
1
7
Creatures of the Dark
(Exodus 8:24)


Not you shall commit sexual perversion. (Exodus 20:14)

II

Sefirat HaOmer
Counting of the Omer

Leviticus 23:6

Summer Solstice

(Jealousy)

Not you shall make for yourself a carving, and any likeness, which is in heavens from above, and which is in an earth from beneath, and which is in waters from under earth; not shall  you bow down to them, and not you shall serve them; for I am Existing, your God, God jealous, visiting iniquity of fathers on sons of the third generation and fourth generation of ones hating Me; and doing kindness to a thousands generations of ones loving Me and ones guarding My commandments. (Exodus 20:4-6)

Darkness
(Exodus 10:22)
2
8
Lice or Mosquitoes
(Exodus 8:16)

Not you shall steal. (Exodus 20:15)

III

Yom Teruah

Blowing of the Shofar

(Leviticus 23:24)

Autumn Equinox

(Reminder)

Not you shall take up take a Name of Existing, your God, in vain; for not shall acquit Existing Whoever takes up his Name in vain. (Exodus 20:7)

Locusts
(Exodus 10:13)
3
9
Frogs
(Exodus 8:5)

Not you shall answer about your associate a testimony false. (Exodus 20:16)

IV

Yom Kippur

Day of Atonement

(Leviticus 23:27)

Autumn
Equinox

(Work)

Remember a day of the Rest, to hallow it. Six days you shall serve, and do all your work; and a day the seventh is rest unto Existing, your God, not you shall do any work, you, and your son, and your daughter, your servant, and your female-slave, and your beast, and your sojourner who is in your gates; for six days was making Existing the Heavens and the Earth, the Sea, and All which is in them, and He ceased in a day the seventh; therefore blessed Existing a Day of the Rest, and hallowed it. (Exodus 20:8-11)

Hail and Fire
(Exodus 9:23)
4
10
Water into Blood
(Exodus 7:19)

Not you shall covet a house of your associate; not you shall covet a wife of your associate, and his servant, and his female-slave, and his bull, and his donkey, and anything which is to your associate. (Exodus 20:17)

V

Sukkot

Feast of the Tabernacles

(Leviticus 23:34)

Autumn
Equinox

(Desire)

Honor your Father and your Mother, so that prolonged are your days on the ground which Existing, your God gives to you. (Exodus 20:12)

Unhealable Boils
(Exodus 9:10)
5


Here is the brief explanation to this table:
  1. The Ten Commandments are the "compressed" Torah, meaning that these 10 commandments are unambiguous enough to include all Torah commandment. I.e commandment #7 encompasses all sexually deviant acts, not just traditional adultery.
  2. Two Tablets corresponded to Two human Hands.
  3. 10 Commandments corresponded to 10 fingers.
  4. Each pair of the 10 Commandments corresponded to one of the 5 mandatory Holidays.
  5. Each pair of the 10 Commandments corresponded to each other. I.e Idolatry vs Adultery e.t.c
  6. Each of the 10 Commandments corresponded to each of the 10 plagues.
  7. Corresponding Holiday signified the reward for keeping the Commandment.
  8. Corresponding Plague signified the punishment for violating the Commandment.
  9. Order of the Holidays also signified their priority. I.e Numbers 9:6-10.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

3D Model of All Sockets of theTabernacle

Here is the 3D Model of all of the Sockets of the Tabernacle. I'm showing all the Sockets at once so that you can compare them and see the difference between different Sockets.

From left to right:
  1. Two Silver Sockets of the Regular Board (i.e Exodus 26:19)
  2. Two Parts of the Round Silver Socket of each of the Round Corner Boards (Exodus 26:23-25)
  3. Round Silver Socket of the 4 Inner Pillars of the Tent (Exodus 26:32)
  4. Different types of Round Copper Socket of the 5 Outer Pillars of the Tent (Exodus 26:37)
  5. Round Copper Socket of the 60 Pillars of the Courtyard (i.e. Exodus 27:10)
To see the model please go here, to this section of my blog, and select "Socket Types of the Tabernacle" from the drop-down menu.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Q&A - Why was the Altar of Incense overlayed with gold?

I have answered this question in my previous post, but I wanted to elaborate a little bit more. Here is the rendering of the Altar of Incense:

The reason for overlaying Altar of Incense with gold was pretty much the same as that for the overlaying The Ark of The Covenant - to provide choice.

The Children of Israel could either have God presence dwelling among them or they could have gold of the Altar of Incense, but never both.

Removing gold overlay from the Altar, which by reasonable calculations accounted to ~7.6kg (major ~80%portion of gold used in the construction of the Altar), we would end up with this:

Removing the solid gold parts of the Altar (its golden Crown and its 2 golden rings), we would end up with this:

As you can see from the image above, the Altar of Incense is now completely useless as it is now nothing but a fancy wooden box with a couple of wooden poles and cannot be carried around.

Among other reasons for overlaying the Altar of Incense with gold were:
  1. Aesthetic reasons, so that Altar looks nice and grand; worthy of the presence of God, so to speak.
  2. Protection from the elements, as gold practically does not oxidize (rust). And gold overlay would protect Shittim Wood base of the Altar from deterioration.
  3. Perhaps, gold overlay was also required to help "channel" God's presence to the Tabernacle, so it was essential to have Altar overlayed.
Either way and as you can see, gold overlay of the Altar of Incense (and of the other parts of the Tabernacle) played extremely important symbolic and practical role. 

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

Q&A - Why was the Ark of The Covenant overlaid with gold ?

As Exodus 25:11 specifies, the Ark of The Covenant was overlayed in gold. Its other parts were too either made completely of gold (Crown - Exodus 25:11, 4 Rings - Exodus 25:12, Mercy Seat - Exodus 25:17) or also overlayed with gold (i.e Staves - Exodus 25:13).

Thus, as you can see from the image above, the entire Ark of The Covenant was covered in gold (or made of) gold. But what was the reason behind such expensive endeavor ?

Well, the answer to this question is very simple: it was to provide the Children of Israel with CHOICE!

As you know, gold is a very expensive and precious material. It always had been and always will be. By overlaying Ark of The Covenant with gold, and what is most importantly, making some of its critical parts completely out of gold, it was assured that those in possession of the Ark would always have a choice!

The choice I'm talking about is, of'course, the choice between God and personal materialistic desires. The choice between God and gold!  

Without gold overlay and golden parts, the Ark of The Covenant would have been useless. Imagine stripping just the gold overlay from the Ark! It would look like so:

According to reasonable calculations, this would account to ~23kg of gold, or roughly 1/2 of all gold used in making of the Ark. Nevertheless, the Ark still appears to be intact and more or less useful as some of the rituals(i.e Leviticus 16:13-15) can still be performed. Although in my humble opinion, removing gold overlay would greatly affect Ark's resistance to elements and its structural strength (i.e it could not be carried anymore).

Removing the other half of the gold (all solid gold parts), we would end up with this:

As you can see from the image above, the Ark is now completely useless. And even though it can still house the two stone tablets of The Testimony, it is now nothing but a wooden box and two detached poles of wood.

Thus, I hope it is now clear that overlaying the Ark with gold and making some of its part of solid gold had tremendous symbolic and practical significance. 

Monday, March 7, 2011

Exodus 27:9-19 vs. Exodus 38:9-20, or why the Courtyard of The Tabernacle was 120 x 60 cubits.

I have tried to explain in much details why the Court of The Tabernacle was 120x60 cubits in this section of my blog, but I felt that even more clarifications needed to thoroughly cover this nuance.

As I have stated numerous times, most people assume that the Courtyard of the Tabernacle was 100x50 cubits. However, this assumption is incorrect as it is based on the traditional sources that blatantly misread the original text and present distorted facts.

In reality, it were the Hangings of the Courtyard that were 100x50 cubits, however, once the width of the Pillars of the Courtyard was included, the total measurements of the Courtyard of the Tabernacle was 120x60 cubits.

Therefore, I have created these two tables that should give you an excellent opportunity to see discover this fact yourself.


The first table below provides you with the summary of all verses from the original text for each side of the Court that is being described (measured). 
Verse
Original Text [YLT 1862]
Verse
Original Text [YLT 1862]
South Side
Ex. 27:9
And thou hast made the court of the tabernacle: for the south side southward, hangings for the court of twined linen, a hundred by the cubit [is] the length for the one side,
Ex. 38:9
And he maketh the court; at the south side southward, the hangings of the court of twined linen, a hundred by the cubit,
North SideEx. 27:11
and so for the north side in length, hangings of a hundred [cubits] in length, and its twenty pillars and their twenty sockets [are] of brass, the pegs of the pillars and their fillets [are] of silver.
Ex. 38:11
and at the north side, a hundred by the cubit, their pillars [are] twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets [are] silver;
West Side Ex. 27:12
And [for] the breadth of the court at the west side [are] hangings of fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.
Ex. 38:12
and at the west side [are] hangings, fifty by the cubit; their pillars [are] ten, and their sockets ten; the pegs of the pillars and their fillets [are] silver;
East SideEx. 27:13
And [for] the breadth of the court at the east side, eastward, [are] fifty cubits.
Ex. 38:13
and at the east side eastward fifty cubits.


East Side - 1st flankEx. 27:14
And the hangings at the side [are] fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three.
Ex. 38:14
The hangings on the side [are] fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three,
East Side - 2nd flankEx. 27:15
And at the second side [are] hangings fifteen [cubits], their pillars three, and their sockets three.
Ex. 38:15
and at the second side at the gate of the court, on this and on that, [are] hangings, fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their sockets three;
East Side - Gate
Ex. 27:16
And for the gate of the court a covering of twenty cubits, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen, work of an embroiderer; their pillars four, their sockets four.
Ex. 38:18
And the covering of the gate of the court [is] the work of an embroiderer, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen; and twenty cubits [is] the length, and the height with the breadth five cubits, over-against the hangings of the court;
Summary
Ex. 27:18
The length of the court [is] a hundred by the cubit, and the breadth fifty by fifty, and the height five cubits, of twined linen, and their sockets [are] brass,
Not Specified
Not Specified

But this second table provides you with filtered description which cross-references the sides of the Courtyard that are being measured with the particular elements that are being measured, as well as the units of measure that are being used.
Verse
Element Measured
Value
Units of Measure
Verse
Element Measured
Value
Units if Measure
South Side
Ex. 27:9
Hangings
100
CubitsEx. 38:9
Hangings
100
Cubits
North SideEx. 27:11
Hangings
100
Not SpecifiedEx. 38:11
Not Specified
100
Cubits
West Side Ex. 27:12
Hangings
50
CubitsEx. 38:12
Hangings
50
Cubits
East SideEx. 27:13
Not Specified
50
CubitsEx. 38:13
Not Specified
50
Cubits
East Side - 1st flankEx. 27:14
Hangings
15
CubitsEx. 38:14
Hangings
15
Cubits
East Side - 2nd flankEx. 27:15
Hangings
15
Not SpecifiedEx. 38:15
Hangings
15
Cubits
East Side - GateEx. 27:16
Hangings
20
CubitsEx. 38:18
Hangings
20, 5x5
Cubits
SummaryEx. 27:18
Hangings
100, 50x50, 5
CubitsNot Specified
Not Specified
Not Specified
Not Specified

As you can see from this second table, ALL measurements of the Courtyard are provided in CUBITS of HANGINGS - NOT IN CUBITS of LENGTH/WIDTH !!!

I hope that now you can clearly see that traditional explanation of the dimensions of the courtyard is erroneous and misleading.

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