Saturday, January 30, 2016

About Exodus 16:22

I found an explanation to Exodus 16:22. Let's take a look:
YLT Ex 16:22 . And it cometh to pass on the sixth day, they have gathered a second bread, two omers for one, and all the princes of the company come in, and declare to Moses.
As you can see, it appears that there was falling double amount of Manna on the sixth day. However, this is not possible because we are clearly told in Ex 16:16 that they are to gather 1 Omer only per person. So, how could they have double bread for Shabbat?

The answer is simple. It is in Exodus 16:5:
YLT Ex 16:5 and it hath been on the sixth day, that they have prepared that which they bring in, and it hath been double above that which they gather day by day.'
If you will carefully read the passage, you will notice that it says "prepared". So they did not gather double amount. They still gathered 1 Omer of Manna on 6th day. It is the grinding of 1 Omer of Manna that would produce double amount of flour on the sixth day. So it is logical to assume that Man was twice as dense on the sixth day compared to regular days.

If you have read previous guest posts by Shelley Houser, she calculated that 1 Omer of Manna would produce 1.5 US Cups of flour. This means that on sixth day, 1 Omer of Manna would produce 3 Cups of flour. Pretty amazing, isn't it?!?

When Torah was given and how long it took?

I just wanted to point out when Written Torah was given and how long it took for Moses to receive it.

They came to Mt. Sinai in the third month from Exodus.
YLT Ex 19:1 In the third month of the going out of the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt, in this day they have come into the wilderness of Sinai, 
YLT Ex 19:2 and they journey from Rephidim, and enter the wilderness of Sinai, and encamp in the wilderness; and Israel encampeth there before the mount.
Which day it was? The 15th of'course! This is because they left Mizraim on the 15th and not on the 1st.

Then, they spend 3 days there cleansing themselves to receive the 10 commandments.
YLT Ex 19:10 And Jehovah saith unto Moses,  'Go unto the people; and thou hast sanctified them to-day and to-morrow, and they have washed their garments, 
YLT Ex 19:11 and have been prepared for the third day; for on the third day doth Jehovah come down before the eyes of all the people, on mount Sinai.
God waited 7 days to invite Moses to receive Stone Tablets and the Written Torah. Then Moses spend 40 days and nights on the Mount talking to God.
YLT Ex 24:15 And Moses goeth up unto the mount, and the cloud covereth the mount; 
YLT Ex 24:16 and the honour of Jehovah doth tabernacle on mount Sinai, and the cloud covereth it six days, and He calleth unto Moses on the seventh day from the midst of the cloud. 
YLT Ex 24:17 And the appearance of the honour of Jehovah is as a consuming fire on the top of the mount, before the eyes of the sons of Israel; 
YLT Ex 24:18 and Moses goeth into the midst of the cloud, and goeth up unto the mount, and Moses is on the mount forty days and forty nights.
As you can see, total number of days is 3+7+40=50. This is why Jewish tradition mistakenly links giving of the Torah to Counting of Omer (Shavuot), even though Ex 19:1 clearly states that it was in the 3rd month, while Counting of Omer starts in the 1st month.

Therefore, this year, 50 days from the 15thst of the 3rd month = 5th of the 5th Month or July 28, 2017. Traditional date for Shavuot in 2017 is Sivan 6, or May 31, 2017. As you can see, there is a significant difference in a count.

Please note that it is possible to argue that the Torah was finally received only after the second set of Stone Tablets were given, meaning that the actual end of the Giving of the Torah process happened even later (+ another 40 days at least). So it is actually not clear when the Torah was finally given.

My Pictures of the Land of Canaan (Israel) in 1997

I just wanted to share with you my pictures of Israel (Land of Canaan) that I took in 1997. I am sorry for the low quality (they did not have digital cameras back then) as this is scans of actual paper photos. You can probably enhance them in a Photoshop or something similar.

I feel like Moses in Deuteronomy 32:52 and Deuteronomy 34:4. I saw the land but I never got to live there and probably never will. I can't return there until Written Torah becomes law of the land and 10 commandments become Israel's constitution. This is very sad. But the pictures are just beautiful. I love that land! The land is beautiful! It is truly the land flowing with milk and honey! Our inheritance is surely great!!! It saddens me very much to see what evil and horror our brothers are doing there...Return to the Written Torah already and you will live in peace!!! And you will let people like me to live and experience the Holy Land as well!!! Do not deny me that chance!

My pictures of the Land of Canaan (Israel) 1997

Thursday, January 28, 2016

How long did Noah travel in the ark?

This is a well known question... How with traditional calendar Noah could travel for 150 days which began on 17th of 2nd Month and ended on 17th of 7th Month? Let's take a look at the text first:
YLT Gn 7:11 In the six hundredth year of the life of Noah, in the second month, in the seventeenth day of the month, in this day have been broken up all fountains of the great deep, and the net-work of the heavens hath been opened, 
YLT Gn 8:3 And turn back do the waters from off the earth, going on and returning; and the waters are lacking at the end of a hundred and fifty days. 
YLT Gn 8:4 And the ark resteth, in the seventh month, in the seventeenth day of the month, on mountains of Ararat;
As you can see, Torah says that it was 150 days in 5 months even. 

Let's take a look at traditional calendar: 17th of Iyar(2nd Month) falls on May 25th, 2016. Consequently, 17th of 7th Month when the Noah's journey was over falls on 17th of Tishrei, October 19th, 2016 in Jewish calendar. Therefore, according to traditional calendar, Noah's journey lasted 148 days, including last day (inclusive counting).

I checked my calendar and for this year, the count was 148days. This means that something is still not right.

About Alcohol

This is very important post. Let's see what Torah says and implies about alcohol.
YLT Gn 9:20 And Noah remaineth a man of the ground, and planteth a vineyard, 
YLT Gn 9:21 and drinketh of the wine, and is drunken, and uncovereth himself in the midst of the tent. 
YLT Gn 9:22 And Ham, father of Canaan, seeth the nakedness of his father, and declareth to his two brethren without. 
YLT Gn 9:23 And Shem taketh--Japheth also--the garment, and they place on the shoulder of them both, and go backward, and cover the nakedness of their father; and their faces are backward, and their father's nakedness they have not seen.
YLT Gn 9:24 . And Noah awaketh from his wine, and knoweth that which his young son hath done to him, 
YLT Gn 9:25 and saith:  'Cursed is Canaan, Servant of servants he is to his brethren.' 
YLT Gn 9:26 And he saith:  'Blessed of Jehovah my God is Shem, And Canaan is servant to him. 
YLT Gn 9:27 God doth give beauty to Japheth, And he dwelleth in tents of Shem, And Canaan is servant to him.'
As you can see, the first example is Noah himself in Genesis. He cursed his son because he got drunk. This teaches that alcohol is evil.
YLT Lv 10:8 And Jehovah speaketh unto Aaron, saying, 
YLT Lv 10:9  'Wine and strong drink thou dost not drink, thou, and thy sons with thee, in your going in unto the tent of meeting, and ye die not--a statute age-during to your generations; 
YLT Lv 10:10 so as to make a separation between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the pure; 
YLT Lv 10:11 and to teach the sons of Israel all the statutes which Jehovah hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.'
As you can see, Torah provides very clear explanation of why alcohol is bad. Particularly when you are at work/studying Torah as sons of Aaron were. Alcohol distorts and clouds judgement and make you forget right from wrong. Never work or study/teach Torah when you are drunk, as your judgement will be affected no matter how little alcohol you have consumed. However, there was wine on the Table of Shewbread(Exodus 37:16) so it is unclear if Priests drank any wine inside the Tent. Most likely not, and it was for ceremonial purposes.
YLT Dt 21:18 'When a man hath a son apostatizing and rebellious--he is not hearkening to the voice of his father, and to the voice of his mother, and they have chastised him, and he doth not hearken unto them-- 
YLT Dt 21:19 then laid hold on him have his father and his mother, and they have brought him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place, 
YLT Dt 21:20 and have said unto the elders of his city, Our son--this one--is apostatizing and rebellious; he is not hearkening to our voice--a glutton and drunkard; 
YLT Dt 21:21 and all the men of his city have stoned him with stones, and he hath died, and thou hast put away the evil out of thy midst, and all Israel do hear and fear.
As you can see, intentional drunkenness is punishable by death. Alcoholics, basically, who drink all day long and refuse to do anything.

However, Torah understands that alcohol is a NECESSARY evil and it is impossible to eradicate it. This is why Torah does not prohibit it and even requires it for the offerings. I.e Exodus 29:40, Leviticus 23:13, Numbers 15:5, e.t.c.

Abstinence from alcohol is considered a "mizvah" (commandment) and there is a special oath for that in Numnbers 6:1-21
YLT Num 6:1 And Jehovah speaketh unto Moses, saying, 
YLT Num 6:2  'Speak unto the sons of Israel, and thou hast said unto them, When a man or woman doeth singularly, by vowing a vow of a Nazarite, to be separate to Jehovah; 
YLT Num 6:3 from wine and strong drink he doth keep separate; vinegar of wine, and vinegar of strong drink he doth not drink, and any juice of grapes he doth not drink, and grapes moist or dry he doth not eat; 
YLT Num 6:4 all days of his separation, of anything which is made of the wine-vine, from kernels even unto husk, he doth not eat.
As you can see, even grapes and juice of grapes has alcohol in it and it affects judgement. This is why a Nazarite was prohibited from eating them. Nazarite during his oath was basically considered a holy person on the level of the Priest I would say.

Please note that organic drugs such as Marijuana, Opium Poppy, e.t.c do not affect judgement as alcohol does, which is why there is absolutely no prohibition in the Torah of the organic drugs, and they are even called food in Genesis 1:29 (Marijuana and Opium Poppy are both seed-bearing herbs).
This is why it is better to smoke couple of joints then to drink couple of beers.

My absolute advice based on the above cited verses is to stay away from alcohol if you can (save it for mourning and celebrations). If you must drink, use organic drugs as a substitute because they do not damage your health as alcohol does, particularly your heart.

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

About Healers and Healing

I know that fingers of hands (and feet) represent 10 commandments. Right arm first five and left arm second five. So if you have a pain in the right arm it is likely you are violating all first five commandments. If it is just one finger then it is just one commandment.

Tabernacle were also designed to mimic human body of sorts. I.e Ark was the head/brain. Altar for Slaughters was a stomach etc. Please see Leviticus 15:31 and Numbers 19:13

Not to mention that all measurements in the Torah have something to do with human body. I.e cubit is a forearm, omer - handfuls, e.t.c.

Otherwise Torah says that God is your healer and if you live by the Written Torah alone, you will never be ill. See Exodus 15:26 or Deuteronomy 32:39.

I also think that Deuteronomy 2:20, for example, refers to healers (רפאים rpaim). It was a nation that knew how to heal. They possessed ancient medical skills.

Torah allows medicine as a science though because it is mentioned in Exodus 21:19 as a method of atonement for the sin. This verse also implies that it is ok to charge for medical services because in this case perpetrator was wrong so he must be held accountable through medical costs.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Orthodox Jews do not have leaders!

I was talking with Orthodox Jews the other day and they basically told me that there is no central rabbinic authority, there are no leaders and the only hope is for Messiah. This is very sad and very pathetic. Orthodox Judaism represents God on Earth so they must be responsible for their actions. They can't just give up and wait for God to do all the work. I absolutely do not understand Orthodox Judaism Rabbis.

The question was:
How do I repeal rabbinic laws? Who to contact? What is the process? Please give me specific names and direct contact information. I need real decision makers who can really change the laws. Online or phone # would be great. PM me if it is private. I would rather contact them than write my questions here on this forum. This would really help me out. Thanks.
Here are couple of quotes from all responses. No further comments necessary, I think.
There is no current decision maker who decides the laws for all the Jews. Repealing rabbinic laws is not something that really can happen nowadays. – Daniel Jan 17 at 23:11 
While nowadays there is no central leader that everyone accepts, there is often consensus on the much earlier Rabbi’s decisions. It is practically impossible to overturn actual rabbinic laws today until the Jewish people get it together enough to institute a court greater than the one at the time when the oral law was finalized in written form. Without one communal leader, each community has a Rabbi or Rabbis that help lead their community and make small decisions about applying laws to their community. That is probably who you would want to find and talk to, and if necessary they can point you to an appropriate Rabbi who is an expert in more specific fields. -andrewmh20 Jan 17 at 23:17 
As far as I know there are currently no rabbis who are actively involved in legislating rabbinc-level laws. Those laws were set in stone centuries ago. As DoubleAA mentioned in the comments on your question, rabbinic laws could theoretically be repealed by a court under certain circumstances; however, there is not currently a court as great as the Sanhedrin in order to do this. As far as modern decision-making goes, current rabbis are not determining new laws. Modern rabbis simply interpret the laws that have been in place for a long time in a modern context. There are a few great rabbis who answer the most difficult questions; however, most scenarios that you will encounter in a day-to-day context are unlikely to be so complex that such a great rabbi must be contacted. Usually your local Orthodox rabbi will be sufficient to tell you what you should do in a given circumstance. He will not be creating the law; he will just be telling you the law that is already on the books, and he doesn't have the power to change it -Daniel Jan 17 at 23:17 
It is extremely unlikely that fire on Shabbat will ever be changed... probably even after Moshiach comes. But I don't think we're "screwed." We just won't light fires on Shabbat and everything will be ok. – Daniel Jan 17 at 23:28
P.S. Belief in Moshiach in its colloquial definition is not in the Written Torah.

Friday, January 22, 2016

Prophecy has not ceased!

Please note that traditional opinion that prophecy has ceased after Malachi is absolutely baseless and incorrect.

Torah is ETERNAL law that never changes. This means that prophecy also never disappears. It is just most people ignore prophets and consider them crazy or as messing with them. 

Here is what Torah says:
YLT Dt 18:15 'A prophet out of thy midst, out of thy brethren, like to me, doth Jehovah thy God raise up to thee--unto him ye hearken; 
YLT Dt 18:16 according to all that thou didst ask from Jehovah thy God, in Horeb, in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not add to hear the voice of Jehovah my God, and this great fire let me not see any more, and I die not; 
YLT Dt 18:17 and Jehovah saith unto me, They have done well that they have spoken;
YLT Dt 18:18 a prophet I raise up to them, out of the midst of their brethren, like to thee; and I have given my words in his mouth, and he hath spoken unto them all that which I command him; 
YLT Dt 18:19 and it hath been--the man who doth not hearken unto My words which he doth speak in My name, I require it of him.
YLT Dt 18:20  'Only, the prophet who presumeth to speak a word in My name--that which I have not commanded him to speak--and who speaketh in the name of other gods--even that prophet hath died.
YLT Dt 18:21  'And when thou sayest in thy heart, How do we know the word which Jehovah hath not spoken?-- 
YLT Dt 18:22 that which the prophet speaketh in the name of Jehovah, and the thing is not, and cometh not--it is the word which Jehovah hath not spoken; in presumption hath the prophet spoken it;--thou art not afraid of him.
As you can see, nowhere it says that the prophecy would somehow cease or will be interrupted. Prophets do exist, Prophecy is real, prophets are real and always present in every generation.

Prophet does not necessarily have to do any miracles, but the prophet CAN NOT CONTRADICT WRITTEN TORAH. This is why prophets of Neviim of TNK are, at best, unverifiable.

Prophet test is listed in Deuteronomy 13:1-5:
YLT Dt 13:1 'When there ariseth in your midst a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, and he hath given unto thee a sign or wonder, 
YLT Dt 13:2 and the sign and the wonder hath come which he hath spoken of unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods (which thou hast not known), and serve them, 
YLT Dt 13:3 thou dost not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or unto that dreamer of the dream, for Jehovah your God is trying you, to know whether ye are loving Jehovah your God with all your heart, and with all your soul; 
YLT Dt 13:4 after Jehovah your God ye walk, and Him ye fear, and His commands ye keep, and to His voice ye hearken, and Him ye serve, and to Him ye cleave.
YLT Dt 13:5  'And that prophet, or that dreamer of the dream, is put to death, for he hath spoken apostasy against Jehovah your God (who is bringing you out of the land of Egypt, and hath ransomed you out of a house of servants), to drive you out of the way in which Jehovah thy God hath commanded thee to walk, and thou hast put away the evil thing from thy midst. 
Please note that Prophets are different from "messengers" (aka Angels, i.e Gen 19:1) which are different and work differently. 

Exodus 16:21 by Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of ReadyAnswers.org, in which she discusses how long it took to bake Manna breads and Shewbread. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at houser@readyanswers.org.

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[Aleksandr Sigalov]: Exodus 16 states:
YLT Ex 16:13 And it cometh to pass in the evening, that the quail cometh up, and covereth the camp, and in the morning there hath been the lying of dew round about the camp, 
YLT Ex 16:14 and the lying of the dew goeth up, and lo, on the face of the wilderness a thin, bare thing, thin as hoar-frost on the earth.
YLT Ex 16:21 And they gather it morning by morning, each according to his eating; when the sun hath been warm, then it hath melted.
As you can see from the verses, Manna would appear early in the morning (right before sunrise - twilight) so wandering Hebrews did not have too much time to gather it. Expression "warm sun" is probably a few hours after sunrise. 

According to this web site, this year's(2016) summer solstice in Israel would have twilight @ 4:08am and sunrise @ 4:36am. Winter Solstice in Israel shows twilight @ 6:11 and sunrise @ 6:38am. This means that they had only an hour or so to gather Man.

Here is what Shelley writes about the recipes she presented in previous posts:
For the unleavened manna, it took about 3 minutes to grind the wheat (in my electric grinder), then about 5 minutes to mix up the dough. It took approximately 2 minutes to knead it into a ball, and another 1-2 minutes to roll it out and transfer to a baking sheet. If they baked the thin wafers in an already hot oven, that took the shortest amount of time: approximately 3-4 minutes. Total time: 15-20 minutes 
For the leavened manna, it took about 3 minutes to grind the wheat, then about 10 minutes to mix up the dough (the yeast has to wake up for a few minutes). Then, approximately 10 minutes to knead it (more kneading is required to hold the carbon dioxide, and raise the bread than is necessary for the unleavened dough). I let it rest 10 minutes as the first rising. Then, it took about 8 minutes to roll and fold the dough into the final shape for baking. It took approximately 1 hour for the dough to rise sufficiently. Then, for the rolls, it took about 12 minutes in the oven to bake. For a solid loaf, it took about 30-45 minutes. Total time: 113 minutes (or 1 hour and 53 minutes---just round up to 2 hours) for rolls, and 131 minutes (or 2 hours and 11 minutes) for a solid loaf. So, approximately 2 hour time for leavened manna.
For comparison, the showbread took about the same amount of time to mix up as the unleavened manna, but it took about 1.5 hours to bake in the oven, because it is so much more dense than the leavened bread.  Total time:  approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.
[Aleksandr Sigalov]: As you can see, to make leavened manna bread, it would take an hour of gathering Man and 2 hours to bake it. Three hours total. This means that at the earliest, they could have food at 7am in the summer and 9am in the winter. As you can see, they pretty much did not have breakfast, since they could not keep the food/Man from previous day (except Shabbats of'course).

Thursday, January 21, 2016

Differences between Jewish Torah and Samaritan Torah

I wanted to give a brief overview of the important differences between Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch. It is not by all means complete. Please download files here to compare the texts in the entirety. This is just most significant ones. Some other differences are listed on Wikipedia as well. Most differences appear to be minor/orthographic in nature.

  1. Addition in Genesis 4:8 that explains the passage.
  2. Different numbers of years in genealogies. I.e Genesis 5. Here is a nice table for comparison.
  3. In Exodus 12:40 it says "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers which they had dwelt in the land of Canaan and in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." This explains why there are Hebrews(Jews) in the land of Canaan right now. It means that not all Hebrews were in Egypt at the time of Exodus.
  4. The famous 11th commandment after Exodus 20:17. Here is the text.
  5. In Exodus 23:19 Samaritan Pentateuch contains the following passage after the prohibition: [כי עשה זאת כזבח שכח ועברה היא לאלהי יעקב] which roughly translates "that one doing this as sacrifice forgets and enrages God of Jacob".
  6. Different location of the description of Altar of Incense. In SP it is located in Exodus 26 while in MT in Exodus 30. SP reading is probably original one because MT reading seem to be out of place.
  7. In Numbers 4:14 Samaritan Pentateuch contains the following passage: [ולקחו בגד ארגמן וכסו את הכיור ואת כנו ונתנו אתם אל מכסה עור תחש ונתנו על המוט] which roughly translates "And they will take a purple covering and cover the laver and his foot, and they cover it in Tachash skins, and they put it upon a bar."
  8. Normalization of the text, particularly when listing nations of Canaan. I.e Deut 20:17 I absolutely support normalization and I think it was the original reading.

Exclusive Material: The Lunar Shabbat

PLEASE SEE MOST COMPLETE AND UPDATED ARTICLE HERE.

What is the real Torah calendar? I think the answer is - Lunar Shabbat. 

Some of you have heard about Lunar Shabbat. I was originally skeptical about this theory due to how the theory was presented by Christian groups. It did not work with schedule of Yom Kippur and Counting of Omer. However, I was able to find a proof of Lunar Shabbat in the Torah, which is why I am writing this post.

Let's review what Torah say about calendar:
YLT Gn 1:14 And God saith,  'Let luminaries be in the expanse of the heavens, to make a separation between the day and the night, then they have been for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years, 
YLT Gn 1:15 and they have been for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth:'  and it is so. 
YLT Gn 1:16 And God maketh the two great luminaries, the great luminary for the rule of the day, and the small luminary--and the stars--for the rule of the night;
YLT Gn 1:17 and God giveth them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth, 
YLT Gn 1:18 and to rule over day and over night, and to make a separation between the light and the darkness; and God seeth that it is good;
YLT Gn 1:19 and there is an evening, and there is a morning--day fourth.
As you can see, Gen 1:14 states that luminaries (our sun and moon primarily) were created among all other things to signify the seasons, all of which are listed in Leviticus 23. Appointed Seasons or Holy Meetings (miqra qodesh) include 5 Torah Holidays, Weekly Shabbat and beginning of the months.

Lunar Shabbat theory states that most Holy Meetings (which are called Shabbaths) are defined by phases of the moon. I.e new moon, first quarter, full moon and last quarter all signify Holy Meetings or weekly Shabbat. This means that Shabbat is always on 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th of the lunar month. And this also means that most Holy Meetings fall on these days. The lunar cycle is of'course ~29.5 days, which means that every lunar month has 4 normal 7 days weeks and sometimes 1-2 days+New Moon Shabbat which are counted as "incomplete" weeks as I will discuss below.

This is confirmed with Genesis 1:16, which states that the moon and stars are to "rule the night", meaning that they indicate Holy Meetings during the night time so we always know. Sun is used to define beginning and end of the day(light) period.

Also, as you can see from Genesis 1:19, the moon was created in a 4th day phase so it would align with the rest of the creation week. So when you see 4th day moon on the 1st month, it is exactly how it looked like when God created our solar system.

Yom Kippur is the first problem with Lunar Shabbat because it does not fall on the standard four moon phases indicated above. Yom Kippur as well as the commandment to choose Passover lamb happen on the 10th of the lunar month. This means that the 10th of the month is also one of the important lunar phases that are not traditionally known to most people. Otherwise, there is no contradiction like some people say, because according to traditional calendar Yom Kippur would also divide 7day week into parts, so there is no difference which system to use.

Counting of Omer was trickier but I figured it out. Let's take a look at the verses:
YLT Lv 23:15 'And ye have numbered to you from the morrow of the sabbath, from the day of your bringing in the sheaf of the wave-offering: they are seven perfect sabbaths; 
YLT Lv 23:16 unto the morrow of the seventh sabbath ye do number fifty days, and ye have brought near a new present to Jehovah;
Leviticus 23:15 has the key phrase that proves Lunar Shabbat. It is "seven perfect(or complete) sabbaths" or weeks. This means that there are "complete" weeks and "incomplete" weeks. We are commanded to count 7 COMPLETE weeks, which means that we would not count incomplete weeks. This puts Shavuot precisely right after Summer Solstice day. Connection to this astronomic event makes perfect sense, considering this was the day when Torah was given and when the second First Bread offering was brought.

So basically, we would have 29th Shabbat, then one or two regular days, then New Moon Shabbat. This is what incomplete week is. As I pointed out above, there is nothing wrong with this splitting week in parts because it happens in the traditional system too. For example, in traditional system, a Shabbat may divide Passover or Sukkot week. Sometimes there are even two Shabbats in a row, which is a proof that traditional opinion is wrong, as it would not fit the pattern of Manna fallout schedule in the desert (they would have nothing to eat if they had two Shabbats in a row). For example, Passover of 2008 was right after Shabbat. How is it possible?

So sometimes a month have 4 Shabbats(4complete weeks) and sometimes 5 Shabbats (4 complete weeks+1 incomplete week). So out of all Shabbats 1-8-15-22-29, 29th can either be extra Shabbat (incomplete week month) or sometimes 29th can fall on New Moon (complete week month). This also means that there can't be 29 days in a Lunar month because we would have 2 Shabbats in a row(29th and 1st), so lunar months have to be either 28 days long or 30+ days.

The end of the month (incomplete week) or New Moon is determined by the day of week on which following Full Moon falls. This allows to adjust the calendar to the moon without having two Shabbats in a row as traditional calendar has.

The reason why Shabbat offerings are not mentioned in other Holy Meetings in Numbers 28-29 is because every Shabbat is not necessarily a Holy Meeting, so there is no need to repeat the offering ten times in the description of each Meeting, it is implied. For example, in Numbers 29:34 there is no mentioning of a Shabbat offering, even though it is said explicitly to be seventh day. Neither does it say it in Numbers 29:38-39.

Please note that New Moon is absent from main list of Holy Meetings in Leviticus 23. However, New Moon is present in Numbers 28, namely Numbers 28:2 and Numbers 28:11 where it is called moed(meeting).

Lunar Shabbat helps to gain new insights into the text. For example, Exodus 16:1 states that Hebrews arrived to Sin on fifteenth of the second month from Exodus from Egypt. Exodus 16:22-23 thus can be interpreted to say that the first Shabbat occurred on the 15+7=22nd day of the 2nd month since Exodus, on which no manna would fall out for the first time. This proves that 15th and 22nd are Shabbats. Quite interesting, I think.

This calendar also matches famous Genesis 7:11 and Genesis 8:3-4 150 days count. Here is the proof based on the calendar below.

Also, it would be strange if our God, who is a creator of the entire universe, did not leave us a sign of His weekly Shabbats that he sanctified, blessed and made holy. 

And if one would get stuck on an uninhabited island (or otherwise lost track of time), there would be a sign (the phases of the moon) that would allow one to regain the orientation in time again and do not violate Torah by not observing Shabbat on the right day.

Lunar Shabbat makes whole Torah calendar system simple and elegant, without a need of any adjustments. I have not played with the whole theory, so I do not know how it works over 50 years period described in the Torah but I will and post the results soon.

Leviticus verse proves that the traditional weekly Shabbat that we have is not Torah based and simply a man made invention. This is why one should follow major moon phases to determine Shabbat and other Holy Meetings.

I also talked to Orthodox Jews and here is what they said:
"Before the current calendar was developed in post-Temple times, a completely different calendar system was used which was based on observations of the moon."  
"the calendar during the time of the mahn is not what we currently use." 
"when Sanhedrin becomes re-established when the next Temple gets rebuilt, we will return to that calendar, I suppose."
As you can see, Orthodox Jews can't and won't do anything and just waiting for Messiah. This is very sad because Torah provides all necessary information to restore proper calendar.

Click here for direct link to calendar.

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Explanation of the Ritual Slaughter

I wanted to elaborate a little bit more about ritual slaughters that were performed in the Tabernacle. I've discussed this issue in this post before, but I wanted to give another (better) example of why the slaughters were needed and why they are logical and justified.

Consider such example: Your child has a throat cancer and needs a throat transplant or he will die. Throat transplants are hard to find, so in many cases modern medicine uses substitutes from animals, usually a pig or a cow. So, is it justifiable to slaughter a cow to save your child? Of'course! Especially if you will eat remaining meat. This is hopefully clear. But please note that in order for your child to live, someone (a cow) must die. 

This is why we have slaughter system to atone for sin. Somehow our sins are forgiven if we go through specified slaughter rituals. They work just like an example above. Sin is a "throat cancer" so we slaughter a cow to atone (get throat transplant). 

Like I pointed out in the previous post, the meat of the slaughters was not burnt, it was given to the Levites as food. So Torah slaughters are not sacrifices, but rather a glorified slaughter of animals for food. This is why Torah is not a religion.

Dealing with Death

It is very hard when someone close to you dies, so I wanted to provide you with an overview of what Written Torah says about death and how to deal with it.
YLT Gn 23:2 and Sarah dieth in Kirjath-Arba, which is Hebron, in the land of Caanan, and Abraham goeth in to mourn for Sarah, and to bewail her.
As you can see, you should mourn and bewail your dead. This is normal so do not feel uncomfortable to cry and lament. Let your soul express emotion. This will help with healing.
YLT Dt 14:1 'Sons ye are to Jehovah your God; ye do not cut yourselves, nor make baldness between your eyes for the dead;
As you can see, Torah forbids one to mourn the dead too much. Torah celebrates life, not death, so even though mourning is appropriate, it should not consume one's life completely. Mourn your dead and move on with your life. This is the message of the Torah.

Here is what Torah says about mourning time:
YLT Gn 50:2 and Joseph commandeth his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father, and the physicians embalm Israel; 
YLT Gn 50:3 and they fulfil for him forty days, for so they fulfil the days of the embalmed, and the Egyptians weep for him seventy days.
As you can see, Hebrews mourned Jacob for fourty days because he was embalmed. Egyptians mourned Jacob for seventy days.

However, Torah mourning time was later amended to thirty days:
YLT Num 20:29 and all the company see that Aaron hath expired, and they bewail Aaron thirty days--all the house of Israel. 
YLT Dt 34:8 And the sons of Israel bewail Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; and the days of weeping and mourning for Moses are completed.
If death was sudden/accidental, do not blame yourself. There was nothing you could've done differently. God punishes each person individually for his or her sin.
YLT Dt 24:16  'Fathers are not put to death for sons, and sons are not put to death for fathers--each for his own sin, they are put to death. 
So do not blame yourself, mourn your dead for thirty days and move on with your life!
CHOOSE LIFE!
CLV Dt 30:19 Today I call the heavens and the earth to testify against you: Life and death I have put before you, the blessing and the malediction. Now choose life that you may live, you and your seed,
CLV Dt 30:20 by loving Yahweh your Elohim, hearkening to His voice and clinging to Him (for that means life to you and prolonging of your days) so that you may dwell on the ground about which Yahweh had sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, to give to them.

Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Tabernacle Tent Coverings

Here are couple of issues I wanted to record:

First of all, Tabernacle Tent coverings were made out of organic materials (i.e goat's hair and leather) so it is unclear from the text how they keep the Coverings from naturally disintegrating. The logical assumption would be to assume that they would repair or even replace the Coverings when they would rip or wear off.

The second issue is a pitch to the roof which does not seem to provide adequate water runoff during rains. So I was wondering how this issue can be justified by the text and how wandering Hebrews addressed it.

Here is a picture of the Tabernacle roof. As you can see its not really flat but bending downward due to its own weight. Water would accumulate in these bendings.

Another issue is leveling the structure. Even small grade would prohibit Tabernacle erection. Most likely, they traveled from dry lake bed to dry lake bed, which are abundant in the deserts. This would allow them to have a relatively flat surface to setup the Tabernacle upon, and also enough space for the Camp.

Why there are so few Jews right now?

Why there are so few Jews (14 million) if we were promised to be multiplied as "stars of heavens" (Gen 22:17, Gen 26:4 e.t.c) which numbers in billions of billions?

The answers are in the Written Torah of'course. 

First of all, Jews (Hebrews to be more specific, as Judah is just one tribe) are not numerous people:

YLT Dt 7:7  'Not because of your being more numerous than any of the peoples hath Jehovah delighted in you, and fixeth on you, for ye are the least of all the peoples, 
YLT Dt 7:8 but because of Jehovah's loving you, and because of His keeping the oath which He hath sworn to your fathers, hath Jehovah brought you out by a strong hand, and doth ransom you from a house of servants, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
Torah calls Hebrews "the least of all the peoples".

Secondly, Jews do not follow Written Torah. They follow their traditions and so-called Oral Torah. This is why Written Torah says the following:
YLT Dt 4:27 and Jehovah hath scattered you among the peoples, and ye have been left few in number among the nations, whither Jehovah leadeth you, 
YLT Dt 28:62 and ye have been left with few men, instead of which ye have been as stars of the heavens for multitude, because thou hast not hearkened to the voice of Jehovah thy God.
As you can see, this questions is answered directly in the Torah. Torah says more:
YLT Dt 9:4  'Thou dost not speak in thy heart (in Jehovah thy God's driving them away from before thee), saying, For my righteousness hath Jehovah brought me in to possess this land, seeing for the wickedness of these nations is Jehovah dispossessing them from thy presence; 
YLT Dt 9:5 not for thy righteousness, and for the uprightness of thy heart, art thou going in to possess their land; but for the wickedness of these nations is Jehovah thy God dispossessing them from before thee; and in order to establish the word which Jehovah hath sworn to thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob;
Even under Moses, Hebrews rebelled and disobeyed the commandments, so the only reason why God did not destroy them was because He gave an oath to our forefather Abraham.
YLT Lv 26:43  'And--the land is left of them, and doth enjoy its sabbaths, in the desolation without them, and they accept the punishment of their iniquity, because, even because, against My judgments they have kicked, and My statutes hath their soul loathed, 
YLT Lv 26:44 and also even this, in their being in the land of their enemies, I have not rejected them, nor have I loathed them, to consume them, to break My covenant with them; for I am Jehovah their God;--
I hope this answers this question clearly. 

Monday, January 18, 2016

Exodus 16:18 Illustration by Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of ReadyAnswers.org, in which she shows how it was possible to do what is described in Exodus 16:18. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at houser@readyanswers.org.

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[Aleksandr Sigalov:] Exodus 16:18 says the following:
YLT Ex 16:18 and they measure with an omer, and he who is gathering much hath nothing over, and he who is gathering little hath no lack, each according to his eating they have gathered.
This was possible because adults have large handfuls and children have small ones. You can eat what you can grab with both hands so to speak. Omer was proportional to human body, just like cubit which is arm length.

[Shelley Houser]: My children are ages 8 and 9. With one, we tried to do repeatable, level double handfuls measurement. With another, we tried to do more of a max-min measurement. I had him just randomly scoop out a double-handfuls, and as long as he could transfer the amount to another bowl without spilling it, it counted as a valid measurement.

Child One:
Trial 1.  1/2 C + 2 Tablespoons  (scant 3/4 C)
Trial 2.  3/4 C level exact
Trial 3.  3/4 C level exact.

Child Two:
Trial 1.  1/2 C + 3 Tablespoons (very nearly 3/4 C level, but just a bit under)
Trial 2.  3/4 C level exact.
Trial 3.  3/4 C + 2 Tablespoons (somewhere between 3/4 C and 1 C)
Trial 4.  3/4 C level  exact.

Without doing the exact standard deviation, it looks like the average is 3/4 C plus or minus 2 Tablespoons.

On the picture, double hands-full, level scoop by a first child, which is roughly 25% less than adult portion of 1 Cup.

You can use this web site to see that 25% less is perfect amount for a 9 year old. This confirms the theory experimentally.


Friday, January 15, 2016

Who could enter the Tabernacle?

Aaron and his descendants were designated as priests to do the ritual service in the Tabernacle (Exodus 28:1). The more menial labor of the Tabernacle was assigned to the rest of the tribe of Levi (Numbers 1:47-53).

In general, a person offering an animal was to bring it to the door of the Tent of Meeting. This seems to mean the entrance into the Tent, into the Holy Place, suggesting that the the person making the offering was to bring it inside the courtyard, but outside of (in front of) the curtain or screen (the parochet, Exodus 26:36) separating the Holy Place from the Courtyard.

Also, the descriptions of some rituals seem to indicate proximity to the Altar of Burnt Offering. See Leviticus 1:11.

However, after the events described in Numbers 17, the people say that anyone who comes near to the Tabernacle will die (Numbers 17:27-28, 17:12-13). 

Numbers 18:22-23 states:
YLT Num 18:22  'And the sons of Israel come no more near unto the tent of meeting, to bear sin, to die, 
YLT Num 18:23 and the Levites have done the service of the tent of meeting, and they--they bear their iniquity; a statute age-during to your generations, that in the midst of the sons of Israel they have no inheritance; 
YLT Num 18:24 but the tithe of the sons of Israel which they lift up to Jehovah, a heave-offering, I have given to the Levites for inheritance; therefore I have said of them, In the midst of the sons of Israel they have no inheritance.
This means that people (non-Levites) were allowed to come to the Tabernacle only for ritual purposes. Otherwise, they could not approach the Tabernacle under the threat of death.

Baking First Fruits Bread with Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of ReadyAnswers.org, in which she tries to bake Manna Bread that Hebrews had during the desert wanderings. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at houser@readyanswers.org.

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I just thought of one more loaf of bread described in Torah. It is the first fruits bread that each household is supposed to bring after the wheat harvest. It is made with 2 omers of wheat flour, and is made with leaven. The recipe/description for it is in Leviticus 23:17.

Here is the description of the image below (left to right)
  1. Unleavened manna,1 C of manna, ground into flour, which was 1 C plus 5 Tablespoons, plus 1/3 tsp of flour
  2. Unleavened showbread, 2 C of already ground flour
  3. Leavened manna, 1 C of manna, ground into flour, which was 1 C, plus 5 Tablespoons, plus 1/3 tsp of flour
  4. Leavened first fruits bread, 2 C already ground flour


I think this covers all the types of bread, except perhaps some of the grain offering listed for the cleansing of a leper, which I believe, was 3-tenths deals of flour.

Here are the specifications on the first fruits bread baked today. The other loaves are the same as before.

2 Cups of flour, with a mass of 306 g. Finished loaf is 597 g. Finished loaf size is 3 and 5/8 inch x 7.5 inches x 3.75 inches

Aliens in the Torah

A few people asked me if there is a reference to aliens in the Written Torah. Yes, there is. It is Genesis 6:1-4
YLT Gn 6:1 And it cometh to pass that mankind have begun to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters have been born to them, 
YLT Gn 6:2 and sons of God see the daughters of men that they are fair, and they take to themselves women of all whom they have chosen. 
YLT Gn 6:3 And Jehovah saith,  'My Spirit doth not strive in man--to the age; in their erring they are flesh:'  and his days have been an hundred and twenty years. 
YLT Gn 6:4 The fallen ones were in the earth in those days, and even afterwards when sons of God come in unto daughters of men, and they have borne to them--they are the heroes, who, from of old, are the men of name.
As you can see from these verses, aliens are referred to as "sons of God" or "sons of Elohim", as well as "ha-nefilim" which literally means "the distinguished ones ". YLT translates it as "fallen ones" as one of the opinions.

As you can see from the verses, they intermarried with human females and produced superior offsprings.

So apparently, we are not alone in the universe after all. 




Wednesday, January 13, 2016

About The Name of God

So here are some more of my thoughts about the name of God. 

Traditional pronunciation seem to be "Yahweh". This is true for both English and Russian languages.

However, second and forth letters of the name are the same so they need to form the same sound. So according to this the name would be "Yahwah".

Many words that use vav (third letter of the name) have the vowel point at its left which makes it the "u" sound. This is accepted as a normal Hebrew construction (when not dealing with the Name). This means that most proper pronunciation of the name should be "Yahuah" with "u" sound instead of "w".

Second argument would the the word Yehudah (יהודה). As you can see, it uses all the letters used in the Name. This means that we can deduce proper pronunciation from this word. Since we know for sure that Yehudah is pronounced with "u" not "w", we can most certainly say that Yahuah should also be pronounced with "u" and not "w".

This is my current and best understanding of the name.

I was also told that this is how prophets have pronounced it. I do not know if this is true though.

Sunday, January 10, 2016

Comparing Show-Bread with Manna Bread by Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of ReadyAnswers.org, in which she tries to bake Manna Bread that Hebrews had during the desert wanderings. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at houser@readyanswers.org.

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Hard red wheat: 
1 C of berries = 190 g unground
This ground up to 1 and 5/8 C of flour  or 190 g flour. (Mass stayed the same: volume changed due to crushing)

Soft white wheat:
1 C of berries = 193 g unground (density and shape is different than red wheat berries)
This ground up to 1 and 11/16 C of flour or 193 g of flour (Mass stayed the same: volume changed due to crushing.)  

Added together:

2 and 3/4 C flour, with a total mass of 383 g. (Masses are additive, but volumes are not.) Expected volume would be 3 and 5/16 C flour, but there was only 2 and 3/4 C flour from the two being mixed together.

So, dividing that in two equal volumes, each loaf was allocated 1 C plus 5 Tablespoons, plus about 1/3 of a teaspoon. This was less than the 1.5 C of the smallest volume of the last set of experiments, and less than each of the two separately ground amounts for either the hard red or soft white wheat above. This ended up being an odd amount to measure out, but we could use 1.5 C in the recipe.

For the leavened bread: I started out with 187 g of flour, and for the unleavened bread, I started out with 196 g of flour. 10 grams difference could be accounted for by how much bran got into each cup.

'm not quite happy with how the yeast bread turned out.  I didn't have a pan that was the right size for the amount of dough that resulted from the recipe, and so it spread out too much, and just does not look very good.  I purchased a smaller pan, but it may still be too big.  If I get a chance in the next few days, I may try to repeat the yeast bread portion again.  Otherwise, here is what happened this time.  I also kept track of the total oil used in these loaves, instead of just using the estimate in the last recipe.  Therefore, the total calories is different, and the recipe is a bit different, too.  Since it was that weird amount of flour, I am going to just keep the 1.5 Cups of flour as the base amount in the recipe.

Leavened Manna:

1.5 C whole wheat bread flour (actual amount was 1 Cup + 5 Tablespoons + 1/3 teaspoon, or about 187 grams)
2.25 teaspoons active dry yeast
scant 1/2 C warm water (can always add a bit more if dough is too dry)
2 Tablespoons honey
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 C olive oil (have another 1/3 C available for kneading and dough preparation)

Method:
Put a scant 1/2 C of warm water in a small mixing bowl. Add the 2.25 teaspoons yeast and mix well.  Add the 2 Tablespoons honey and mix well again. Let sit until yeast is foamy, and smells like yeast.  If it doesn't do this, then get some new yeast and try again. While the yeast is waking up, put 1.5 Cups of whole wheat bread flour into a medium mixing bowl. Add salt and mix well. Add yeast mixture and stir. Add oil, and mix well. If the dough is a bit too dry, then add water by tablespoons until you have a moderately soft dough, that has a few white patches on the outside of the ball, and has a few white stringy gluten bands on the inside of the dough. If the dough is too wet and sticky to knead, then add a small amount of flour, until you get the appearance described above. Place scrappy dough ball on a well-oiled table surface, and knead until the dough ball is smooth and satiny, and will be able to pass the window-pane test. (When a small amount of dough can be stretched without breaking, until it is translucent enough to see some light through the dough). Place in a bowl that has been greased with olive oil, and rub a little oil on the top of the dough before placing a towel over the bowl. Place bowl in a warm area for 10 minutes, or until dough ball has doubled in size. Place dough on a well-oiled table surface, and roll out with a rolling pin until it is about 1/4 inch thick. Spread 1-2 Tablespoons on the dough, and fold it in half. Spread more oil on the top surface, and fold in half again the same way. You should now have a long, thin rectangle. Spread oil on the top surface again, and fold the dough into thirds. You should now have something that resembles a folded cinnamon roll.  Re-oil table surface and take the rolling pin, and roll out the folded dough again to a rectangle that is about 1/4 inch thick. Oil surface, and fold as described above. Continue to roll, oil, and fold as above one more time, or as desired.  If the dough starts to pull apart when you roll it out, then you are on the border of having too much oil worked into the dough. Stop adding oil, and just fold as described. For the last roll out, if you want a traditional American-style loaf, then just fold it in half, and roll up the rest of the dough. Pull the edges down and tuck in on a bottom seam. Place into a well-greased small loaf pan (try the size used for holiday breads 8 x 3 3/4 x 2 1/2), and cover with a towel. Place in a warm area, and let rise 1 hour, or until double. Bake in a 350 degree oven for about 40 minutes, or until top is browned, and firm.  Take out of pan, and cool on cooling rack. If it is not browned nicely on the bottom, then return it to the oven for a few more minutes. Makes 1 loaf, or about 8 dinner-sized rolls. Caloric value:  (per nutritiondata.com and using 7/12 C oil. ) 1872 calories.  

Unleavened Manna:

1.5 C whole wheat pastry flour (Actual amount was 1 cup, plus 5 Tablespoons, plus 1/3 teaspoon, or about 196 grams)
4-5 Tablespoons water
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 Tablespoons honey
1/4 C olive oil (plus about 1/4 C more for kneading and dough preparation)

Method:

Place flour into medium mixing bowl. Add salt and mix well. Add oil, and mix until all the flour is coated. Add the honey, and mix well again. Add water by Tablespoons, and mix after each addition. You have added enough water when the dough can come together in a scrappy ball, and there are white patches on the outside of the dough, and small white gluten threads showing on the inside of the dough. Turn out on to an oiled table surface, and knead 1-2 minutes, or until the dough can be rolled out with a rolling pin. Roll out to about 1/4 inch and cook as desired.  

Traditional American loaf: Fold in half, and roll the rest into a ball. Tuck edges down and make a seam on the bottom. Shape loaf to be like a football. Place in greased 3 x 5 x 2 pan.  Bake at 350 degrees for 45 minutes to 1 hour. Cool on rack.  Makes 1 loaf.

Thin crackers: Cut into 1-inch squares (or sizes desired). Transfer to greased cookie sheet, and bake at 350 degrees until golden brown. This should take less than 5 minutes. Check often. Cool on rack. Makes approximately 60 1-inch crackers

Small cookies: Pinch off dough, and roll into 1-inch balls. Place on greased cookie sheet, and bake at 350 degree, until golden brown. This should take about 5 minutes. Check often. Cool on cooling rack. Makes approximately 20 small cookies.

Unleavened roll: Cut large rectangle of rolled out dough into 8 pieces. Roll out a bit thinner. Fold each piece in half, and then in half again, or in thirds, as desired. Bake on greased cookie sheet for 5-6 minutes, or until golden brown on top and bottom. Check often. Cool on cooling rack. Makes approximately 8 rolls.

Noodles: Cut large rectangle of rolled out dough into strips of desired width. Place strips in salted, boiling water and cook 5-6 minutes, or until the noodles come to the surface, and are done to your liking. After the strips are all in, you can turn down the heat, until the water is just simmering, if desired, so the noodles do not break into smaller pieces. Either drain the water off, or take the noodles out with a slotted spoon. May rinse in warm water before serving.  Makes approximately 60 1/4 inch wide noodles. Calories (from nutritiondata.com, using 1/4 Cup + 2 Tablespoons olive oil) 1554 Calories.

Here is the picture of all three loaves together. From left to right: 

Shewbread loaf. This was the 518 g loaf. 

Middle loaf: Today's unleavened loaf: 318 g. This measures 2 and 5/8 inches wide x 4 and 5/8 inches long x 2 inches high  

Right-most loaf: Today's leavened loaf. It was 372 g. (It has more oil than the unleavened loaf). It spread out to be 4 and 5/8 inches wide x 6.5 inches long x 1 and 3/8 inches high (average over top. Peak in one place was 1 and 1/2 inch, but it was not representative of the entire surface).  


Friday, January 8, 2016

Baking Leavened Manna Bread with Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of ReadyAnswers.org, in which she tries to bake Manna Bread that Hebrews had during the desert wanderings. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at houser@readyanswers.org.

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Hello Friends,

This is a continuation of my earlier post on Simulated Manna. In the last post, we developed a recipe by looking at Bible passages, and also discussed various ways of cooking or baking the unleavened dough. If you missed it, and would like to read it, click here.

Today, we will focus on developing a recipe and method for making a leavened version of this simulated Manna.  We know that the Children of Israel were familiar with yeast breads, and knew how to make them because of the instructions given in Leviticus 23:15 for the First Fruits bread that was supposed to be prepared from the new wheat harvest.
YLT Lv 23:15 'And ye have numbered to you from the morrow of the sabbath, from the day of your bringing in the sheaf of the wave-offering: they are seven perfect sabbaths;
As discussed in the previous post, we also see from Numbers 11:8 and Exodus 16:31 that the manna was not in a form ready to eat, but needed to be prepared by milling or grinding first, and then either baked, possibly pan-fried, or boiled.
YLT Num 11:7 And the manna is as coriander seed, and its aspect as the aspect of bdolach; 
YLT Num 11:8 the people have turned aside and gathered it, and ground it with millstones, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pan, and made it cakes, and its taste hath been as the taste of the moisture of oil.
YLT Ex 16:31 and the house of Israel call its name Manna, and it is as coriander seed, white; and its taste is as a cake with honey.
So, we will explore a possible recipe for a yeast version of this simulated manna and see how it may have looked and tasted.

The Flour: 

As discussed above, and in my previous post, the manna seems like it was more like a seed, than a ready-to-eat bread.  It is described as being like coriander seed, but since coriander seed has no gluten and will not stick to itself on it's own, we will use wheat as our seed to grind.  But how much to grind?  

Exodus 16:17  tells us each person gathered an omer. 
YLT Ex 16:17 And the sons of Israel do so, and they gather, he who is gathering much, and he who is gathering little;
Aleksandr has proposed this is equivalent to 1 US cup (see his previous post link), so we will measure out 1 US Cup of wheat berries for our test recipe. There are two types of wheat berries commonly available to grind:  hard red wheat, and soft white wheat.  The hard red wheat has a higher gluten content, and is more suitable for yeast breads.  So, I am going to use that for our yeast bread.  In my previous post, I showed how easily the coriander is crushed in a mortar and pestle, compared with how difficult the wheat is. I took the easy way out, and used my electric mill to grind this wheat.

This produced 1.5 C of wheat flour. Soft white wheat produced approximately 1.75 C (see previous post).

Preparing the Yeast:

Since I now know my amount of flour, the next step is to get the yeast ready. If you are not familiar with baking yeast breads, there are two important things to know about preparing the yeast. The first is that the yeast like warm water, but not too hot. Run the tap water until you feel that it is comfortably warm, but not too hot that you would like to pull your hand out of the stream after a few seconds. They say to use 110 degree water, but most cooks do not have a thermometer handy to use. It's better to err on the side of too cold than too warm. The second thing is that yeast love to eat sugars, and that is what is used to produce the carbon dioxide they expel, which raises the dough. So, put the sugars for the recipe in with the yeast when you are waking them up. If there are no extra sugars in your recipe, sometimes a bit of extra flour is put in with the yeast, to give it something to eat right away. 

To determine how much yeast to use, I went to Yeast & Baking Lessons - Domestic Baking Lessons - Yeast Conversion Table | Red Star Yeast. Since I have 0-4 C of flour, they recommend 2 + 1/4 teaspoons of yeast.

This is the trickiest part of the recipe: Deciding how much water to add to the yeast to activate it, without adding too much to overwhelm the amount of flour you are using. If you have an abundance of water and flour, it doesn't matter quite so much, because you can add a bit more of either ingredient to make the correct texture. However, since we are using a fixed amount of flour, it is more critical we get the water right this time. I made a first guess of 1/4 C, and it was too little.  I added more water, and it overwhelmed the flour, and I had to add about another 1/2 C of flour to compensate. So, on the next trial, I settled on 1/2 C of water, and it seemed to be just perfect (today). Stir to activate the yeast. 

I am using the same 2 Tablespoons of honey used in the unleavened manna recipe, but after tasting it, it doesn't taste very sweet, because the yeast ate a lot of it. The real manna likely had more sweetener in it, and it would increase the calories, too. You can add more honey in this recipe without fear of it overwhelming the structure of the wheat. Add the honey, and stir to distribute.

The Flavorings:

I am including 1/2 teaspoon of salt, mostly for flavor, but it is also worthy to notice that the grain offerings that were supposed to be brought with the sacrifices were to include salt in them. See Leviticus 2:13  
YLT Lv 2:13 And every offering--thy present--with salt thou dost season, and thou dost not let the salt of the covenant of thy God cease from thy present; with all thine offerings thou dost bring near salt.
Since coriander seed is mentioned, we will add some of that, also.  However, the manna may have only resembled the coriander seed in size and shape, ease of crushing, etc., and would not necessisarily have had to taste like coriander, according to these verses.  I added about 1 Tablespoon of crushed coriander seeds. Mix well.

Adding the yeast:

It's time to add the yeast. The yeast should be fully awake now, and starting to produce carbon dioxide gas.  Look at your bowl. If it doesn't look bubbly on top, then your yeast is bad, and you should start over with new yeast. If it looks foamy and smells like yeast, then add the yeast to the dry ingredients. Mix well.

Adding sufficient calories:

Since we know this bread was the main part of their caloric intake, it has to be fairly high in calories. One way to accomplish this, in a fairly small amount of food, is to have it be rich in fats and sugars. We can see that the manna was described in both these ways by looking at Exodus 16:31 and Numbers 11:8
YLT Ex 16:31 and the house of Israel call its name Manna, and it is as coriander seed, white; and its taste is as a cake with honey.
YLT Num 11:8 the people have turned aside and gathered it, and ground it with millstones, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pan, and made it cakes, and its taste hath been as the taste of the moisture of oil.
So, I am going to add an ample amount of oil. 1/4 C now, and at least 1/4-1/2 C later, in the dough kneading and preparing of the loaves.

Mixing and kneading:

As I mentioned earlier, the water is a tricky part of this recipe. Here is a picture showing the first batch I made. The water and oil I had previously added were too much for the amount of flour in the bowl.  If you see this, then it's too wet, and you should put in more flour. Since I had to add about 1/2 C to get this to the right consistency, I started over with the correct amount of flour, and reduced the water to 1/2 C. Notice the dough will make a scrappy ball, and the characteristic white patches on the outside of the dough, showing there is enough water with the flour for gluten development.

Put the dough ball on a well-oiled surface, and knead 6-10 minutes. Basically, you fold and punch the dough, until you see the ball get more elastic, smooth, and will pass the "window pane test", which I will now explain. 

The Window Pane Test:

This is a quick test to see if you are finished kneading or not. Take a small pinch off the dough ball and flatten it out. If it breaks or is too sticky to do that in your hand, you are not finished kneading. If it looks like this, then it is at least hopeful that you are finished. Next, take your fingers, and start spreading out the disc, like a miniature pizza, and see if it will stretch without breaking. If it tears at this point, you need to knead. You are finished when you can stretch the dough out thin enough that when you hold it up to the light, you can see some light passing through the dough. You can see the light coming through, though, and there are no rips in the dough.  You are ready to let this rise.

Raising the dough:

Put the dough in a well-greased bowl, put a little oil on the top of the dough, and cover. Let rest at least 10 minutes, or let rise until doubled. I usually just let it rest 10 minutes and go on.

Shaping the loaves:

Since this is going to be a high-fat dough, and noting the other loaf shape my brother suggested (see my other post), this dough preparation is going to be somewhat like a croissant.  First, uncover the dough,and put it on a well-oiled surface. Flatten it out with your hand. Take a rolling pin, and roll it to about 1/4 inch thick. Spread a liberal amount of oil on the dough, and fold it in half. Spread oil on the dough, and fold it in half again.Spread oil on that, and fold in thirds. Take the rolling pin, and roll it out to 1/4 inch thick again. Repeat the process described above, and roll out again the third time.  If you want even more flakiness and internal structure in the final loaves, repeat the process yet again. When you've finished this step, you should have a rectangle, that is 1/4 inch thick.

Since we are trying to show the amount of food one could eat in a day from 1 C of wheat berries, I will make 8 little loaves. This will serve as 2 for breakfast, 2 for lunch, 2 for supper, and 2 for snacks during the day. So, I cut the dough into 8 approximately equal pieces.

Take each piece, and roll it out a bit flatter. Spread oil on it, and fold it in half, as you did the larger dough piece. Spread oil on that exposed surface, and fold it in thirds, like you did for the larger dough piece. Place on a greased cookie sheet to rise. 

Continue with the other 7 pieces. Cover, and let rise about an hour, or until doubled. Ours raised about 1.5 hours. 

Bake in 350 degree oven for about 10 minutes.  Reduce heat to 325, and bake another 5-6 minutes, or until the tops are just golden brown, and the bottoms are nicely browned.  


Top will still be soft.

Cool the rolls on a cooling rack.

The structure of these rolls is very soft and springy on the inside. They will compress down, and spring back up to their original size. 



So, the finished rolls or loaves look like this. This is one day's ration.

The finished rolls were of arbitrary size, but they had the following masses:

1.  66 g
2.  45 g
3.  43 g
4.  36 g
5.  60 g
6.  49 g
7.  56 g
8.  68 g

Total:  423 g of food. 

Final Recipe and Nutritional Analysis.

The final recipe is as follows:

1.5 C whole wheat flour
2 + 1/4 teaspoon active dry yeast
1/2 C warm water
2 Tablespoons honey
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 Tablespoon crushed coriander (or to taste)
1/4 C olive oil (have 1 to 1 1/4 C available)

Method:  

Measure out the yeast into a small bowl. Add the warm water, and stir. Add the 2 Tablespoons of honey to the yeast and stir. Set aside.

Measure out the flour into a medium mixing bowl. Add the salt and crushed coriander to the flour and mix well. When the yeast is foamy, add it to the flour bowl and stir. Add the oil, and mix well. The dough should pull together to make a scrappy ball, and be able to be kneaded. If it is too dry, add a bit more water. If it is too wet, then add a bit more flour. Place the dough on a well-oiled table surface, and knead 6-10 minutes, or until ball is smooth and satiny, and will pass the window pane test. (Stretch a small ball of dough thinly enough to see some light through it, without it tearing.). Place the dough into a well-oiled bowl, and put some oil on the top. Cover and let rest at least 10 minutes, or until double, if desired. Put on oiled surface and flatten. Roll out with a rolling pin to 1/4 inch thick. Pour olive oil over the dough and spread out. Fold in half. Spread oil over the surface and fold in half again, to make a long rectangle. Spread oil over the surface, and fold in thirds, to make a folded square that resembles a cinnamon roll. Take the rolling pin, and mash down the folded square, and roll it out to a rectangle that is 1/4-inch thick again. Repeat the process above of oiling the surface, folding in half, in half again, and in thirds. Repeat this again, if desired, for flaky texture. When you have repeated this as many times as you desire, roll the dough out to the rectangle 1/4-inch thick again. Cut into 8 equal parts. To shape each piece, roll it out a bit thinner, and fold it exactly as you did the larger piece of dough. Place folded square seam down on a greased cookie sheet. Repeat for the other pieces. Cover and let rise for 1 hour, or until doubled. Bake at 350 for 10-15 minutes, or until lightly golden brown on top, and browned on the bottom. You may need to turn the temperature down to 325, if it seems to be baking too quickly. Cool on cooling rack. Makes 8 dinner-sized rolls.

Nutritional Analysis: This is a bit difficult to analyze, since I didn't measure the exact amount of oil used in all the kneading and folding. I estimate, though that the total oil was at least 1 C, and perhaps up to 1.25 C. I am using 1 C olive oil in the recipe analysis. The total calories were calculated as 2691 calories, as found at http://nutritiondata.self.com/

This would be more than sufficient for a day's ration of calories.  These were delicious, but when eating these, though, they seemed to call out for milk or more butter, so they are not nutritionally complete in themselves.  I'm sure God's bread was better.

Thanks for spending this time with me,

Shelley Houser,
Chemist, enthusiastic cook, and home schooling mom

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