Sunday, December 25, 2011

An Updated Tabernacle Layout

Here is an updated (or rather - current) version of the Tabernacle Layout. It incorporates the minor changes that I have discussed in my previous posts, and it supposed to be more readable and consistent since I'm using new software to create it. 

Most notable changes include the dimensions of the Tent Pillars (I changed them from 0.5 cubits to 1 cubit in outside diameter), location of the Golden Altar of Incense (exactly in the middle of the Tent Framework)  and the dimensions of the Copper-plated Altar of Burnt Offering (changed height from 5 to 3 cubits and removed the ramp).

If you like, below is my old (from 2009) and now outdated layout for comparison:

Enjoy and feel free to download and use it.

Thursday, December 22, 2011

First Disassembly and Decampment of The Tabernacle

Many new, exciting and exclusive updates are to come to my blog, but for now I would like to answer this very interesting question: when exactly was the Tabernacle disassembled and decamped for the first time?

Now, as usual, all the information is right in the original text. But in this particular case it is buried deep within the chapters and not many people actually aware of it.

Let's take a look at Numbers 10:11-13:
11 And it came to pass on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle of the testimony.

12 And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran.

13 And they first took their journey according to the commandment of the LORD by the hand of Moses.
‎11 ‏וַיְהִ֞י בַּשָּׁנָ֧ה הַשֵּׁנִ֛ית בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֖י בְּעֶשְׂרִ֣ים בַּחֹ֑דֶשׁ נַעֲלָה֙ הֶֽעָנָ֔ן מֵעַ֖ל מִשְׁכַּ֥ן הָעֵדֻֽת׃

‎12 ‏וַיִּסְע֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל לְמַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם מִמִּדְבַּ֣ר סִינָ֑י וַיִּשְׁכֹּ֥ן הֶעָנָ֖ן בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר פָּארָֽן׃

‎13 ‏וַיִּסְע֖וּ בָּרִאשֹׁנָ֑ה עַל־פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה בְּיַד־מֹשֶֽׁה׃
As you can read from the description, on 20th of 2nd month, in year 2 from Exodus out of Egypt, the Pillar of Smoke (Cloud of Smoke, that represented God's presence) was taken up from off the Tabernacle. This cloud:

Please note the use of important word "the cloud" ("הענן"/"he'anan"), as I have discussed in this post, this particular word means that the Tabernacle was first moved during the day time, and not night time. And most likely in the morning, so that Levites have enough time to disassemble and prepare the Tabernacle for transportation, yet still have plenty of daylight left to get them started (it was their first time).

Also, in the morning the sun would shine from the east (obviously) and it would light up the Gate of the Courtyard FROM OUTSIDE (as shown above), perhaps signifying that it is time for Levites to enter the Tabernacle and begin working ( in this case - to disassemble it).

As you can see, everything in the Tabernacle (due to its very specific design) had an important and dedicated purpose.

Another point worth mentioning that right in the preceding verses of the same chapter (Numbers 10), it provides us with the description of the of the Silver Trumpets that would be used to announce the move and to direct it (Numbers 10:4-6). 

This means that the Silver Trumpets were also used for the first time for this particular task of moving the Tabernacle.

I hope this gave you some fresh insights into the Tabernacle operation. 

Friday, December 16, 2011

The Tabernacle Explorer 3D Update

Here is a first update to my Tabernacle Explorer 3D software. The changes are as follows:
  1. An Online Version
  2. Stand-alone version is now less in size, in ZIP archive and should be more compatible with different versions of Windows OS.
  3. New separate Web Site for the Software.
  4. Troubleshooting tips for the software.
  5. Minor code and model fixes.


Thursday, December 1, 2011

Status Update

Unfortunately, my work on Priestly Garments 3D models going much slower than I have anticipated and for that I must apologize. I have run into several problems along the way, primarily the difficulties with making sense of the description of each garment (Exodus 28), as well as acquiring some textual source materials that I needed to support my choice of the design. 

However, the good news is that some of the outlines of the models that I have completed so far are looking very good and I believe the end result will look even better. I'm also working to improve the presentation of the models, because I think my Tabernacle models did not look that great.

I hope that I will be able to show some of my work pretty soon, so even though I will not be posting, please do not think that I have abandoned my blog ;) I do plan, however, to post answers to a few interesting questions that have come up about the Tabernacle description, so there will be something for you to ponder upon while my models are in works.

Monday, October 24, 2011

Collection of the Tabernacle Illustrations



I have found two web sites that contain various artistic illustrations of the Tabernacle. Covered are pretty much all parts and pieces, made by different artists or scanned from different books.

But first of all, please see my panoramic image of the Tabernacle's Holy Place:

As you can see, only Levites were allowed to serve at the Tabernacle. And not just any Levites - ONLY Sons of Aaron (Aaronites).

First web site is of the Portland Bible study group. There are many more illustrations if you will follow the link, but here are some notable ones:

Here is an overview of the Tabernacle camp:

This is what rabbis want you to forget about! This!

Tabernacle is Chukat Olam (eternal commandment) and it is the PERMANENT dwelling of God! Tabernacle is said to be forever in the Written Torah! This is why rabbis do not want you to find out about it! 
Overview of the Tabernacle Mishkan and the camp

Here is another overview of the Tabernacle and camp:

Rabbis do not want you to remember the true sanctuary of God - the Tabernacle (Mishkan). This is because they want you to believe in the stone immovable Temple and Jerusalem, none of which are ever mentioned in the Torah!!!
Tabernacle Mishkan and the Camp

Here is a labeled diagram of the camp with tribes names and locations:

The place that the book of Deuteronomy is talking about can be ANY place among ANY of the tribe. And this is because it talks about the Tabernacle, which was movable and could travel to any location.

Look at this beautiful sight! This is what rabbis do not want you to know about, because it would put them out of power and control over Jewish people!
Pillar of Fire at night above the Tabernacle Mishkan

This is a true sanctuary of God! Only Tabernacle! All rituals and sin offerings in the Written Torah are centered about the Tabernacle! Levites are to serve ONLY in the Tabernacle! Levites would get tithes for service at the Tabernacle!
Pillar of Fire at night above Mishkan Tabernacle

This is one of the most accurate images of the Tabernacle. Once again, look at this sight!

This one below is also one of the most accurate I've seen so far. Not sure who the painter is.

Here is one of the traditional Tabernacle Courtyard layouts. It is obviously incorrect for the many reasons I have stated in my previous posts and an article.
Incorrect Tabernacle Mishkan Tent and Courtyard Layout Diagram

Here is also one of the traditional layouts of the western side of the Tabernacle Tent Frame. Also incorrect for the reasons that I have covered numerous times:
Incorrect Tabernacle Mishkan Tent Layout Diagram

Another layout of the Tent of the Tabernacle. Also incorrect.
Incorrect Tabernacle Mishkan Tent Layout Diagram

Here is the schematic diagram of many Tabernacle parts. Many of them incorrect as they are based on the traditional interpretations and opinions.
Tabernacle Mishkan Overview and diagram

Incorrect layout of the Tabernacle Mishkan and the Courtyard

Here is the Ark of the Covenant Rendering.
Ark of the Covenant 3D

And this is how High Priest would talk to God on Yom Kippur in Holy of Holies
(Unknown painter)
High Priest talking to God above Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant

Levites(Kohathites) carrying the Ark of the Covenant
Levites carrying the Ark of the Covenant

Here is the Breastplate of Judgement of the High Priest (Aaron). Schematic artistic rendering according to one of the traditional interpretations.
Breastplate of Judgement of High Priest Ephod with 12 precious stones

Here is an artistic rendering of the High Priest in his priestly garments.
High Priest and High Priest Garments Layout and Diagram

Here is yet one more schematic diagram of the High Priest Garments, labeled according to the verses from the text.
High Priest and High Priest Garments Layout and Diagram
This is who had utmost authority according to the Torah! A word or position "rabbi" is never mentioned in the text.
High Priest and High Priest Garments Layout and Diagram

And here is another artistic rendering of the High Priest in his garments, surrounded by regular Levites who also served at the Tabernacle.
High Priest and High Priest Garments Rendering

The second web site is rather a commercial venture where different Bible illustrators post their images for sale. Since there are too many of them there and they are all copyrighted, I'm not going to post any pictures here, but I encourage you to follow this second link as well and browse around by using different search criteria. There are many beautiful, insightful and modern images there. Here is the link with an arbitrary search terms.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Festival of Huts (Sukkot)

The last out of five major holidays, and the third of the mandatory holidays, is the Festival of Huts (aka Feast of Tabernacles, Festival of Booths, Sukkot, e.t.c).

The most interesting and important detail about this holiday is the type of dwelling that being celebrated. Let's take a look at the original text first, in Leviticus 23:39-43:
39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath.

40 And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.

41 And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.

42 Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:

43 That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.
39 ‏אַ֡ךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֜וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י בְּאָסְפְּכֶם֙ אֶת־תְּבוּאַ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ תָּחֹ֥גּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהוָ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּיּ֤וֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ שַׁבָּת֔וֹן וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֖י שַׁבָּתֽוֹן׃
40 ‏וּלְקַחְתֶּ֨ם לָכֶ֜ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הָרִאשׁ֗וֹן פְּרִ֨י עֵ֤ץ הָדָר֙ כַּפֹּ֣ת תְּמָרִ֔ים וַעֲנַ֥ף עֵץ־עָבֹ֖ת וְעַרְבֵי־נָ֑חַל וּשְׂמַחְתֶּ֗ם לִפְנֵ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃
‎41 ‏וְחַגֹּתֶ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ חַ֣ג לַֽיהוָ֔ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תָּחֹ֥גּוּ אֹתֽוֹ׃
‎42 ‏בַּסֻּכֹּ֥ת תֵּשְׁב֖וּ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים כָּל־הָֽאֶזְרָח֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יֵשְׁב֖וּ בַּסֻּכֹּֽת׃
‎43 ‏לְמַעַן֮ יֵדְע֣וּ דֹרֹֽתֵיכֶם֒ כִּ֣י בַסֻּכּ֗וֹת הוֹשַׁ֙בְתִּי֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּהוֹצִיאִ֥י אוֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃
As you can see, on this holiday, people are required to dwell in "huts" ("סכת" sukkot, plural). The reason why I'm using the word "hut" and not "booths" or "tabernacles" is not accidental.

In the original text the following major distinctions are made:
  1. "סכה" (sukkah - hut) is a "Temporary Mobile SHELTER". See Lev. 23:40 above.
  2. "אהל" (ohel - tent) is a "Permanent Mobile DWELLING" See Gen. 25:27
  3. "בית" (beit - house) is a "Permanent Stationary STRUCTURE" See Gen. 33:17
For comparison and posterity here are the definitions provided by the Oxford Dictionary for all of these types of shelters:

  1. Hut - "a small single-story building of simple or crude construction, serving as a poor, rough, or temporary house or shelter."
  2. Booth - "a small temporary tent or structure at a market, fair, or exhibition, used for selling goods, providing information, or staging shows."
  3. Tent - "a portable shelter made of cloth, supported by one or more poles and stretched tight by cords or loops attached to pegs driven into the ground."
  4. Tabernacle - "(in biblical use) a fixed or movable habitation, typically of light construction. a tent used as a sanctuary for the Ark of the Covenant by the Israelites during the Exodus and until the building of the Temple."
  5. Building (related - House) - "a structure with a roof and walls, such as a house, school, store, or factory"
Thus, we can't call this holiday a "Festival of Booths", as a "Booth" is not a shelter, it is more of a structure or a dwelling; and it may not be necessarily temporary as "booths" usually constructed out of processed materials.

We can't call this holiday a "Festival of Tabernacles/Tents" either, as the Tabernacle/Tent is also somewhat of a structure rather than a shelter.

The "huts", however, are usually more of a shelter, rather than a structure and is usually made out of the materials specified in the Lev. 23:40.

Thus, in my humble opinions, the "Festival of Huts", or even better, "Festival of Shelters of Branches" is the most appropriate translation of the original text, as well as the most notable detail as far as the comparison with the Tabernacle goes.

Also, as you can see from the description above, these "huts" were to be made out of fresh, UNPROCESSED wood and foliage, as opposed to (i.e.) Tabernacle that was made out of processed  plant AND animal materials. 

Therefore, the "hut" required for the holiday would look like a palm hut/fishing hut of sorts, somewhat like so (image from this web site):

Compare it with the traditional Jewish structure (from this web site):

And just for fun (only in the spirit of the holiday), here is a modern and rather abstract concept of a Sukkah as envisioned by some Jewish "architects" (image from this website - detailed drawing here):

Thursday, October 6, 2011

The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)

The fourth out of five major holidays is the Yom ha-Kippurim: lit. the Day of  Shelters. Traditionally this holiday is known as the Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur (singular). The word "kippur" literally refers to the Lid of the Ark of the Covenant (i.e Ex. 25:17) and thus the name of the Holiday.

Let's take a look at the main description that can be found in Levtiticus 23:26-32:
26 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.

29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.

30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.

31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.

32 It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.

26 ‏וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃

‎27 ‏אַ֡ךְ בֶּעָשׂ֣וֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ֩ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֨י הַזֶּ֜ה י֧וֹם הַכִּפֻּרִ֣ים ה֗וּא מִֽקְרָא־קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָֽה׃

‎28 ‏וְכָל־מְלָאכָה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֣י י֤וֹם כִּפֻּרִים֙ ה֔וּא לְכַפֵּ֣ר עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

‎29 ‏כִּ֤י כָל־הַנֶּ֙פֶשׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־תְעֻנֶּ֔ה בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וְנִכְרְתָ֖ה מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ׃

‎30 ‏וְכָל־הַנֶּ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּעֲשֶׂה֙ כָּל־מְלָאכָ֔ה בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וְהַֽאֲבַדְתִּ֛י אֶת־הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽהּ׃

‎31 ‏כָּל־מְלָאכָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֹֽשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃

‎32 ‏שַׁבַּ֨ת שַׁבָּת֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּתִשְׁעָ֤ה לַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב מֵעֶ֣רֶב עַד־עֶ֔רֶב תִּשְׁבְּת֖וּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶֽם׃ פ

More detailed description can be found in ‎Leviticus 16:1-34, and since its relevant to the Tabernacle, I would like you to follow this brief summary of the holiday proceedings:

The ritual would be performed by the High Priest himself. No one else would be allowed to do it. The priest would have to follow a set of very specific and strict rules so as to avoid any problems such as in the the death of two sons of Aaron (which are mentioned in the first verses of the description on purpose and as a reminder for non-compliance).

I did not research the procedure in detail and maybe mistaken, but it appears that the ritual would begin at sundown (Lev. 23:32):

After initial preparations (Lev. 16:1-11), the High Priest would first fill the Tent of the Tabernacle with Incense fumes (Lev. 16:12-13):

Only then, when Incense smoke would fill and cover (kippur) the entire Tent, only then he would enter the Holy of Hollies section so do the ritualistic blood sprinkling upon the actual "kippur" - the Ark of the Covenants' Lid (Mercy Seat) [Lev. 16:14-15] Thus the name of the Holiday.

He then would sprinkle blood about the rest of the Tent (the Holy Place). He would be alone inside while doing this. (Lev. 16:16-17) 

The High Priest would then exit the Tent of the Tabernacle and proceed to atone the Altar of Burnt Offering, sprinkling blood upon its four Horns. (Lev. 16:18-19).

Once he would be done with that, the High Priest would "curse" the so-called chosen "Goat of Departure", the Scapegoat, and assign one of the priests(?) to take it out to the wilderness and release it there. (Lev 16:20-22)

This would signify that the sins are now far away from the congregation. Lev(16:22) Like so:

Then the Priest would conclude the ritual by washing himself in water; the other person who took the Scapegoat out in the wilderness would also be required to wash himself in water. Other miscellaneous procedures would be performed as well and the "humbling of the soul" (fasting) would commence.(Lev. 16:23-34.

Last, but not least, the blow of the Silver Thrumphets would be used to announce the beginning of the holiday: 

I hope that this gave you an idea of what the ritual of the Day of Atonement looked at the times of the Tabernacle. But I hope that once I will finish updating my models, I would be able to provide you with more comprehensive review of this interesting ritual.

Have a great Yom ha-Kippurim!

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

The Day of the Remembrance (Yom Terua)

The third out of five high holidays is the Day of Remembrance [of the trumpet sound]. This holiday has direct connection to the Tabernacle, and since it is coming up soon, I figured I would do a brief introduction.

The description of the most interest can be found in Numbers 10:1-10. Let's take a look:
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

2 Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.

‎1 ‏וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃

‎2 ‏עֲשֵׂ֣ה לְךָ֗ שְׁתֵּי֙ חֲצֽוֹצְרֹ֣ת כֶּ֔סֶף מִקְשָׁ֖ה תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹתָ֑ם וְהָי֤וּ לְךָ֙ לְמִקְרָ֣א הָֽעֵדָ֔ה וּלְמַסַּ֖ע אֶת־הַֽמַּחֲנֽוֹת׃
As you can see, two special silver bugles (perhaps, horns or trumpets) were required to be made for the ceremonial purposes, as well as for practical purposes.

8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations.

9 And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies.

10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.
‎8 ‏וּבְנֵ֤י אַהֲרֹן֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים יִתְקְע֖וּ בַּֽחֲצֹצְר֑וֹת וְהָי֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם לְחֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶֽם׃

‎9 ‏וְכִֽי־תָבֹ֨אוּ מִלְחָמָ֜ה בְּאַרְצְכֶ֗ם עַל־הַצַּר֙ הַצֹּרֵ֣ר אֶתְכֶ֔ם וַהֲרֵעֹתֶ֖ם בַּחֲצֹצְר֑וֹת וֲנִזְכַּרְתֶּ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וְנוֹשַׁעְתֶּ֖ם מֵאֹיְבֵיכֶֽם׃

‎10 ‏וּבְי֨וֹם שִׂמְחַתְכֶ֥ם וּֽבְמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם֮ וּבְרָאשֵׁ֣י חָדְשֵׁיכֶם֒ וּתְקַעְתֶּ֣ם בַּחֲצֹֽצְרֹ֗ת עַ֚ל עֹלֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעַ֖ל זִבְחֵ֣י שַׁלְמֵיכֶ֑ם וְהָי֨וּ לָכֶ֤ם לְזִכָּרוֹן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃ פ

As you can read from the last verses of this passage, the Sons of Aaron (Eleazar and Ithamar; the other two died) were assigned the task of these trumpets.

Since I have not researched this subject in details yet, I would have to leave my commentary on this as is for now. But I hope that in the future, I would be able to cover it more thoroughly.

One thing I would like to point out though:

In Jewish tradition this (holy)day is known as "Rosh HaShana" (aka Jewish New Year). This is incorrect, as in Leviticus 23:24-25 we are clearly told that the Day of Remembrance falls on the 1st day of the 7th month, and in Exodus 34:22 the seventh month is referred to as "the turning point" (autumn equinox) of the year (not "the end" of the year). Moreover, the term "Rosh HaShana" is explicitly used to indicate the 1st month (the month of Passover) in Exodus 12:2.

Here is a YouTube video that should give you an idea of the sound (but not necessarily shape) of these trumpets:

Dead Sea Scrolls Online

The Israel Museum has finally come through and put up some of the Qumran Scrolls online for everyone to view. There are only a few scrolls available for now, and only one(!) includes the transcript and translation. But I think its better than nothing at all, so I suggest you visit the official project web site and enjoy the exibition.

There is also some information and transcripts available in wikipedia. This web site may also be of interest.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Artistic rendering of the Ark, Priestly Garments and the Tabernacle

Here are a few artistic images to illustrate details of the Tabernacle service.

This one (from this web site - click "login as guest" to access images) is of the Ark of The Covenant being carried in its normal "mode", with its Blue Covering (Numb. 4:6) on top of it. This illustration is most likely to the verse of Joshua 3:17. The downside of this illustration, in my humble opinion, is the positioning of the Ark Staves (along the length and closer to the bottom).

This image (from the same web site) is of the Priestly Garments, Aaron Garments. Nice schematic image.

And here is one of a few images from this 3d model of the Tabernacle (from this web site), that is based on the traditional interpretation of the verses.

For example, compare the image above to my rendering of one of the corners of the Tabernacle Courtyard. I hope this will allow you to see the differences and downsides of the traditional interpretation(above), as opposed to more realistic direct interpretation of the Tabernacle description (below).

1657 Walton's London Polyglot (7th century Samaritan manuscript)

Here is another manuscript of note that includes the Samaritan Pentateuch. In fact, this polyglot Bible uses 7th century Samaritan manuscript (not sure yet which one though), as well as presents the text of the Pentateuch in the original Samaritan script. Variations also included.

Here is an image of the first two pages of this book (once you click on the image, click on the small link below to open hi-res version. Please be advised that the image is very large so it may load slow.)

Also, in this edition, there are many interesting (and beautiful) illustrations. The most interesting one is that of the Tabernacle and Temple Sacred Vessels and Furniture:

You can read and download the entire work at this web site.

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