Saturday, January 30, 2016

About Exodus 16:22

I found an explanation to Exodus 16:22. Let's take a look:
YLT Ex 16:22 . And it cometh to pass on the sixth day, they have gathered a second bread, two omers for one, and all the princes of the company come in, and declare to Moses.
As you can see, it appears that there was falling double amount of Manna on the sixth day. However, this is not possible because we are clearly told in Ex 16:16 that they are to gather 1 Omer only per person. So, how could they have double bread for Shabbat?

The answer is simple. It is in Exodus 16:5:
YLT Ex 16:5 and it hath been on the sixth day, that they have prepared that which they bring in, and it hath been double above that which they gather day by day.'
If you will carefully read the passage, you will notice that it says "prepared". So they did not gather double amount. They still gathered 1 Omer of Manna on 6th day. It is the grinding of 1 Omer of Manna that would produce double amount of flour on the sixth day. So it is logical to assume that Man was twice as dense on the sixth day compared to regular days.

If you have read previous guest posts by Shelley Houser, she calculated that 1 Omer of Manna would produce 1.5 US Cups of flour. This means that on sixth day, 1 Omer of Manna would produce 3 Cups of flour. Pretty amazing, isn't it?!?

When Torah was given and how long it took?

I just wanted to point out when Written Torah was given and how long it took for Moses to receive it.

They came to Mt. Sinai in the third month from Exodus.
YLT Ex 19:1 In the third month of the going out of the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt, in this day they have come into the wilderness of Sinai, 
YLT Ex 19:2 and they journey from Rephidim, and enter the wilderness of Sinai, and encamp in the wilderness; and Israel encampeth there before the mount.
Which day it was? The 15th of'course! This is because they left Mizraim on the 15th and not on the 1st. XRef Genesis 7:11.

Then, they spend 3 days there cleansing themselves to receive the 10 commandments.
YLT Ex 19:10 And Jehovah saith unto Moses,  'Go unto the people; and thou hast sanctified them to-day and to-morrow, and they have washed their garments, 
YLT Ex 19:11 and have been prepared for the third day; for on the third day doth Jehovah come down before the eyes of all the people, on mount Sinai.
God waited 7 days to invite Moses to receive Stone Tablets and the Written Torah. Then Moses spent 40 days and nights on the Mount talking to God.
YLT Ex 24:15 And Moses goeth up unto the mount, and the cloud covereth the mount; 
YLT Ex 24:16 and the honour of Jehovah doth tabernacle on mount Sinai, and the cloud covereth it six days, and He calleth unto Moses on the seventh day from the midst of the cloud. 
YLT Ex 24:17 And the appearance of the honour of Jehovah is as a consuming fire on the top of the mount, before the eyes of the sons of Israel; 
YLT Ex 24:18 and Moses goeth into the midst of the cloud, and goeth up unto the mount, and Moses is on the mount forty days and forty nights.
As you can see, the total number of days is 3+7+40=50. This is why Jewish tradition mistakenly links giving of the Torah to Counting of Omer (Shavuot), even though Ex 19:1 clearly states that it was in the 3rd month, while Counting of Omer can start as early as 16th of the 1st Month.

Therefore, this year, 50 days from the 15thst of the 3rd month = 5th of the 5th Month or July 28, 2017. The traditional date for Shavuot in 2017 is Sivan 6, or May 31, 2017. As you can see, there is a significant difference in a count.

Please note that it is possible to argue that the Torah was finally received only after the second set of Stone Tablets were given, meaning that the actual end of the Giving of the Torah process happened even later (+ another 40 days at least). So it is actually not clear when the Torah was finally given.

My Pictures of the Land of Canaan (Israel) in 1997

I just wanted to share with you my pictures of Israel (Land of Canaan) that I took in 1997. I am sorry for the low quality (they did not have digital cameras back then) as this is scans of actual paper photos. You can probably enhance them in a Photoshop or something similar.

I feel like Moses in Deuteronomy 32:52 and Deuteronomy 34:4. I saw the land but I never got to live there and probably never will. I can't return there until Written Torah becomes law of the land and 10 commandments become Israel's constitution. This is very sad. But the pictures are just beautiful. I love that land! The land is beautiful! It is truly the land flowing with milk and honey! Our inheritance is surely great!!! It saddens me very much to see what evil and horror our brothers are doing there...Return to the Written Torah already and you will live in peace!!! And you will let people like me to live and experience the Holy Land as well!!! Do not deny me that chance!

My pictures of the Land of Canaan (Israel) 1997

Thursday, January 28, 2016

How long did Noah travel in the ark?

This is a well known question... How with traditional calendar Noah could travel for 150 days which began on 17th of 2nd Month and ended on 17th of 7th Month? Let's take a look at the text first:
YLT Gn 7:11 In the six hundredth year of the life of Noah, in the second month, in the seventeenth day of the month, in this day have been broken up all fountains of the great deep, and the net-work of the heavens hath been opened, 
YLT Gn 8:3 And turn back do the waters from off the earth, going on and returning; and the waters are lacking at the end of a hundred and fifty days. 
YLT Gn 8:4 And the ark resteth, in the seventh month, in the seventeenth day of the month, on mountains of Ararat;
As you can see, Torah says that it was 150 days in 5 months even. 

Let's take a look at traditional calendar: 17th of Iyar(2nd Month) falls on May 25th, 2016. Consequently, 17th of 7th Month when the Noah's journey was over falls on 17th of Tishrei, October 19th, 2016 in Jewish calendar. Therefore, according to traditional calendar, Noah's journey lasted 148 days, including last day (inclusive counting).

I checked my calendar and for this year, the count was 148days. This means that something is still not right.

About Alcohol

This is very important post. Let's see what Torah says and implies about alcohol.
YLT Gn 9:20 And Noah remaineth a man of the ground, and planteth a vineyard, 
YLT Gn 9:21 and drinketh of the wine, and is drunken, and uncovereth himself in the midst of the tent. 
YLT Gn 9:22 And Ham, father of Canaan, seeth the nakedness of his father, and declareth to his two brethren without. 
YLT Gn 9:23 And Shem taketh--Japheth also--the garment, and they place on the shoulder of them both, and go backward, and cover the nakedness of their father; and their faces are backward, and their father's nakedness they have not seen.
YLT Gn 9:24 . And Noah awaketh from his wine, and knoweth that which his young son hath done to him, 
YLT Gn 9:25 and saith:  'Cursed is Canaan, Servant of servants he is to his brethren.' 
YLT Gn 9:26 And he saith:  'Blessed of Jehovah my God is Shem, And Canaan is servant to him. 
YLT Gn 9:27 God doth give beauty to Japheth, And he dwelleth in tents of Shem, And Canaan is servant to him.'
As you can see, the first example is Noah himself in Genesis. He cursed his son because he got drunk. This teaches that alcohol is evil.
YLT Lv 10:8 And Jehovah speaketh unto Aaron, saying, 
YLT Lv 10:9  'Wine and strong drink thou dost not drink, thou, and thy sons with thee, in your going in unto the tent of meeting, and ye die not--a statute age-during to your generations; 
YLT Lv 10:10 so as to make a separation between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the pure; 
YLT Lv 10:11 and to teach the sons of Israel all the statutes which Jehovah hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.'
As you can see, Torah provides very clear explanation of why alcohol is bad. Particularly when you are at work/studying Torah as sons of Aaron were. Alcohol distorts and clouds judgement and make you forget right from wrong. Never work or study/teach Torah when you are drunk, as your judgement will be affected no matter how little alcohol you have consumed. However, there was wine on the Table of Shewbread(Exodus 37:16) so it is unclear if Priests drank any wine inside the Tent. Most likely not, and it was for ceremonial purposes.
YLT Dt 21:18 'When a man hath a son apostatizing and rebellious--he is not hearkening to the voice of his father, and to the voice of his mother, and they have chastised him, and he doth not hearken unto them-- 
YLT Dt 21:19 then laid hold on him have his father and his mother, and they have brought him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place, 
YLT Dt 21:20 and have said unto the elders of his city, Our son--this one--is apostatizing and rebellious; he is not hearkening to our voice--a glutton and drunkard; 
YLT Dt 21:21 and all the men of his city have stoned him with stones, and he hath died, and thou hast put away the evil out of thy midst, and all Israel do hear and fear.
As you can see, intentional drunkenness is punishable by death. Alcoholics, basically, who drink all day long and refuse to do anything.

However, Torah understands that alcohol is a NECESSARY evil and it is impossible to eradicate it. This is why Torah does not prohibit it and even requires it for the offerings. I.e Exodus 29:40, Leviticus 23:13, Numbers 15:5, e.t.c.

Abstinence from alcohol is considered a "mizvah" (commandment) and there is a special oath for that in Numnbers 6:1-21
YLT Num 6:1 And Jehovah speaketh unto Moses, saying, 
YLT Num 6:2  'Speak unto the sons of Israel, and thou hast said unto them, When a man or woman doeth singularly, by vowing a vow of a Nazarite, to be separate to Jehovah; 
YLT Num 6:3 from wine and strong drink he doth keep separate; vinegar of wine, and vinegar of strong drink he doth not drink, and any juice of grapes he doth not drink, and grapes moist or dry he doth not eat; 
YLT Num 6:4 all days of his separation, of anything which is made of the wine-vine, from kernels even unto husk, he doth not eat.
As you can see, even grapes and juice of grapes has alcohol in it and it affects judgement. This is why a Nazarite was prohibited from eating them. Nazarite during his oath was basically considered a holy person on the level of the Priest I would say.

Please note that organic drugs such as Marijuana, Opium Poppy, e.t.c do not affect judgement as alcohol does, which is why there is absolutely no prohibition in the Torah of the organic drugs, and they are even called food in Genesis 1:29 (Marijuana and Opium Poppy are both seed-bearing herbs).
This is why it is better to smoke couple of joints then to drink couple of beers.

My absolute advice based on the above cited verses is to stay away from alcohol if you can (save it for mourning and celebrations). If you must drink, use organic drugs as a substitute because they do not damage your health as alcohol does, particularly your heart.

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

About Healers and Healing

I know that fingers of hands (and feet) represent 10 commandments. Right arm first five and left arm second five. So if you have a pain in the right arm it is likely you are violating all first five commandments. If it is just one finger then it is just one commandment.

Tabernacle were also designed to mimic human body of sorts. I.e Ark was the head/brain. Altar for Slaughters was a stomach etc. Please see Leviticus 15:31 and Numbers 19:13

Not to mention that all measurements in the Torah have something to do with human body. I.e cubit is a forearm, omer - handfuls, e.t.c.

Otherwise Torah says that God is your healer and if you live by the Written Torah alone, you will never be ill. See Exodus 15:26 or Deuteronomy 32:39.

I also think that Deuteronomy 2:20, for example, refers to healers (רפאים rpaim). It was a nation that knew how to heal. They possessed ancient medical skills.

Torah allows medicine as a science though because it is mentioned in Exodus 21:19 as a method of atonement for the sin. This verse also implies that it is ok to charge for medical services because in this case perpetrator was wrong so he must be held accountable through medical costs.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Orthodox Jews do not have leaders!

I was talking with Orthodox Jews the other day and they basically told me that there is no central rabbinic authority, there are no leaders and the only hope is for Messiah. This is very sad and very pathetic. Orthodox Judaism represents God on Earth so they must be responsible for their actions. They can't just give up and wait for God to do all the work. I absolutely do not understand Orthodox Judaism Rabbis.

The question was:
How do I repeal rabbinic laws? Who to contact? What is the process? Please give me specific names and direct contact information. I need real decision makers who can really change the laws. Online or phone # would be great. PM me if it is private. I would rather contact them than write my questions here on this forum. This would really help me out. Thanks.
Here are couple of quotes from all responses. No further comments necessary, I think.
There is no current decision maker who decides the laws for all the Jews. Repealing rabbinic laws is not something that really can happen nowadays. – Daniel Jan 17 at 23:11 
While nowadays there is no central leader that everyone accepts, there is often consensus on the much earlier Rabbi’s decisions. It is practically impossible to overturn actual rabbinic laws today until the Jewish people get it together enough to institute a court greater than the one at the time when the oral law was finalized in written form. Without one communal leader, each community has a Rabbi or Rabbis that help lead their community and make small decisions about applying laws to their community. That is probably who you would want to find and talk to, and if necessary they can point you to an appropriate Rabbi who is an expert in more specific fields. -andrewmh20 Jan 17 at 23:17 
As far as I know there are currently no rabbis who are actively involved in legislating rabbinc-level laws. Those laws were set in stone centuries ago. As DoubleAA mentioned in the comments on your question, rabbinic laws could theoretically be repealed by a court under certain circumstances; however, there is not currently a court as great as the Sanhedrin in order to do this. As far as modern decision-making goes, current rabbis are not determining new laws. Modern rabbis simply interpret the laws that have been in place for a long time in a modern context. There are a few great rabbis who answer the most difficult questions; however, most scenarios that you will encounter in a day-to-day context are unlikely to be so complex that such a great rabbi must be contacted. Usually your local Orthodox rabbi will be sufficient to tell you what you should do in a given circumstance. He will not be creating the law; he will just be telling you the law that is already on the books, and he doesn't have the power to change it -Daniel Jan 17 at 23:17 
It is extremely unlikely that fire on Shabbat will ever be changed... probably even after Moshiach comes. But I don't think we're "screwed." We just won't light fires on Shabbat and everything will be ok. – Daniel Jan 17 at 23:28
P.S. Belief in Moshiach in its colloquial definition is not in the Written Torah.

Friday, January 22, 2016

Prophecy has not ceased!

Please note that traditional opinion that prophecy has ceased after Malachi is absolutely baseless and incorrect.

Torah is ETERNAL law that never changes. This means that prophecy also never disappears. It is just most people ignore prophets and consider them crazy or as messing with them. 

Here is what Torah says:
YLT Dt 18:15 'A prophet out of thy midst, out of thy brethren, like to me, doth Jehovah thy God raise up to thee--unto him ye hearken; 
YLT Dt 18:16 according to all that thou didst ask from Jehovah thy God, in Horeb, in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not add to hear the voice of Jehovah my God, and this great fire let me not see any more, and I die not; 
YLT Dt 18:17 and Jehovah saith unto me, They have done well that they have spoken;
YLT Dt 18:18 a prophet I raise up to them, out of the midst of their brethren, like to thee; and I have given my words in his mouth, and he hath spoken unto them all that which I command him; 
YLT Dt 18:19 and it hath been--the man who doth not hearken unto My words which he doth speak in My name, I require it of him.
YLT Dt 18:20  'Only, the prophet who presumeth to speak a word in My name--that which I have not commanded him to speak--and who speaketh in the name of other gods--even that prophet hath died.
YLT Dt 18:21  'And when thou sayest in thy heart, How do we know the word which Jehovah hath not spoken?-- 
YLT Dt 18:22 that which the prophet speaketh in the name of Jehovah, and the thing is not, and cometh not--it is the word which Jehovah hath not spoken; in presumption hath the prophet spoken it;--thou art not afraid of him.
As you can see, nowhere it says that the prophecy would somehow cease or will be interrupted. Prophets do exist, Prophecy is real, prophets are real and always present in every generation.

Prophet does not necessarily have to do any miracles, but the prophet CAN NOT CONTRADICT WRITTEN TORAH. This is why prophets of Neviim of TNK are, at best, unverifiable.

Prophet test is listed in Deuteronomy 13:1-5:
YLT Dt 13:1 'When there ariseth in your midst a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, and he hath given unto thee a sign or wonder, 
YLT Dt 13:2 and the sign and the wonder hath come which he hath spoken of unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods (which thou hast not known), and serve them, 
YLT Dt 13:3 thou dost not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or unto that dreamer of the dream, for Jehovah your God is trying you, to know whether ye are loving Jehovah your God with all your heart, and with all your soul; 
YLT Dt 13:4 after Jehovah your God ye walk, and Him ye fear, and His commands ye keep, and to His voice ye hearken, and Him ye serve, and to Him ye cleave.
YLT Dt 13:5  'And that prophet, or that dreamer of the dream, is put to death, for he hath spoken apostasy against Jehovah your God (who is bringing you out of the land of Egypt, and hath ransomed you out of a house of servants), to drive you out of the way in which Jehovah thy God hath commanded thee to walk, and thou hast put away the evil thing from thy midst. 
Please note that Prophets are different from "messengers" (aka Angels, i.e Gen 19:1) which are different and work differently. 

Exodus 16:21 by Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of, in which she discusses how long it took to bake Manna breads and Shewbread. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at


[Aleksandr Sigalov]: Exodus 16 states:
YLT Ex 16:13 And it cometh to pass in the evening, that the quail cometh up, and covereth the camp, and in the morning there hath been the lying of dew round about the camp, 
YLT Ex 16:14 and the lying of the dew goeth up, and lo, on the face of the wilderness a thin, bare thing, thin as hoar-frost on the earth.
YLT Ex 16:21 And they gather it morning by morning, each according to his eating; when the sun hath been warm, then it hath melted.
As you can see from the verses, Manna would appear early in the morning (right before sunrise - twilight) so wandering Hebrews did not have too much time to gather it. Expression "warm sun" is probably a few hours after sunrise. 

According to this web site, this year's(2016) summer solstice in Israel would have twilight @ 4:08am and sunrise @ 4:36am. Winter Solstice in Israel shows twilight @ 6:11 and sunrise @ 6:38am. This means that they had only an hour or so to gather Man.

Here is what Shelley writes about the recipes she presented in previous posts:
For the unleavened manna, it took about 3 minutes to grind the wheat (in my electric grinder), then about 5 minutes to mix up the dough. It took approximately 2 minutes to knead it into a ball, and another 1-2 minutes to roll it out and transfer to a baking sheet. If they baked the thin wafers in an already hot oven, that took the shortest amount of time: approximately 3-4 minutes. Total time: 15-20 minutes 
For the leavened manna, it took about 3 minutes to grind the wheat, then about 10 minutes to mix up the dough (the yeast has to wake up for a few minutes). Then, approximately 10 minutes to knead it (more kneading is required to hold the carbon dioxide, and raise the bread than is necessary for the unleavened dough). I let it rest 10 minutes as the first rising. Then, it took about 8 minutes to roll and fold the dough into the final shape for baking. It took approximately 1 hour for the dough to rise sufficiently. Then, for the rolls, it took about 12 minutes in the oven to bake. For a solid loaf, it took about 30-45 minutes. Total time: 113 minutes (or 1 hour and 53 minutes---just round up to 2 hours) for rolls, and 131 minutes (or 2 hours and 11 minutes) for a solid loaf. So, approximately 2 hour time for leavened manna.
For comparison, the showbread took about the same amount of time to mix up as the unleavened manna, but it took about 1.5 hours to bake in the oven, because it is so much more dense than the leavened bread.  Total time:  approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.
[Aleksandr Sigalov]: As you can see, to make leavened manna bread, it would take an hour of gathering Man and 2 hours to bake it. Three hours total. This means that at the earliest, they could have food at 7am in the summer and 9am in the winter. As you can see, they pretty much did not have breakfast, since they could not keep the food/Man from previous day (except Shabbats of'course).

Thursday, January 21, 2016

Differences between Jewish Torah and Samaritan Torah

I wanted to give a brief overview of the important differences between Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch. It is not by all means complete. Please download files here to compare the texts in the entirety. This is just most significant ones. Some other differences are listed on Wikipedia as well. Most differences appear to be minor/orthographic in nature.

  1. Addition in Genesis 4:8 that explains the passage.
  2. Different numbers of years in genealogies. I.e Genesis 5. Here is a nice table for comparison.
  3. In Exodus 12:40 it says "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers which they had dwelt in the land of Canaan and in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." This explains why there are Hebrews(Jews) in the land of Canaan right now. It means that not all Hebrews were in Egypt at the time of Exodus.
  4. The famous 11th commandment after Exodus 20:17. Here is the text.
  5. In Exodus 23:19 Samaritan Pentateuch contains the following passage after the prohibition: [כי עשה זאת כזבח שכח ועברה היא לאלהי יעקב] which roughly translates "that one doing this as sacrifice forgets and enrages God of Jacob".
  6. Different location of the description of Altar of Incense. In SP it is located in Exodus 26 while in MT in Exodus 30. SP reading is probably original one because MT reading seem to be out of place.
  7. In Numbers 4:14 Samaritan Pentateuch contains the following passage: [ולקחו בגד ארגמן וכסו את הכיור ואת כנו ונתנו אתם אל מכסה עור תחש ונתנו על המוט] which roughly translates "And they will take a purple covering and cover the laver and his foot, and they cover it in Tachash skins, and they put it upon a bar."
  8. Normalization of the text, particularly when listing nations of Canaan. I.e Deut 20:17 I absolutely support normalization and I think it was the original reading.

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Explanation of the Ritual Slaughter

I wanted to elaborate a little bit more about ritual slaughters that were performed in the Tabernacle. I've discussed this issue in this post before, but I wanted to give another (better) example of why the slaughters were needed and why they are logical and justified.

Consider such example: Your child has a throat cancer and needs a throat transplant or he will die. Throat transplants are hard to find, so in many cases modern medicine uses substitutes from animals, usually a pig or a cow. So, is it justifiable to slaughter a cow to save your child? Of'course! Especially if you will eat remaining meat. This is hopefully clear. But please note that in order for your child to live, someone (a cow) must die. 

This is why we have slaughter system to atone for sin. Somehow our sins are forgiven if we go through specified slaughter rituals. They work just like an example above. Sin is a "throat cancer" so we slaughter a cow to atone (get throat transplant). 

Like I pointed out in the previous post, the meat of the slaughters was not burnt, it was given to the Levites as food. So Torah slaughters are not sacrifices, but rather a glorified slaughter of animals for food. This is why Torah is not a religion.

Dealing with Death

It is very hard when someone close to you dies, so I wanted to provide you with an overview of what Written Torah says about death and how to deal with it.
YLT Gn 23:2 and Sarah dieth in Kirjath-Arba, which is Hebron, in the land of Caanan, and Abraham goeth in to mourn for Sarah, and to bewail her.
As you can see, you should mourn and bewail your dead. This is normal so do not feel uncomfortable to cry and lament. Let your soul express emotion. This will help with healing.
YLT Dt 14:1 'Sons ye are to Jehovah your God; ye do not cut yourselves, nor make baldness between your eyes for the dead;
As you can see, Torah forbids one to mourn the dead too much. Torah celebrates life, not death, so even though mourning is appropriate, it should not consume one's life completely. Mourn your dead and move on with your life. This is the message of the Torah.

Here is what Torah says about mourning time:
YLT Gn 50:2 and Joseph commandeth his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father, and the physicians embalm Israel; 
YLT Gn 50:3 and they fulfil for him forty days, for so they fulfil the days of the embalmed, and the Egyptians weep for him seventy days.
As you can see, Hebrews mourned Jacob for fourty days because he was embalmed. Egyptians mourned Jacob for seventy days.

However, Torah mourning time was later amended to thirty days:
YLT Num 20:29 and all the company see that Aaron hath expired, and they bewail Aaron thirty days--all the house of Israel. 
YLT Dt 34:8 And the sons of Israel bewail Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; and the days of weeping and mourning for Moses are completed.
If death was sudden/accidental, do not blame yourself. There was nothing you could've done differently. God punishes each person individually for his or her sin.
YLT Dt 24:16  'Fathers are not put to death for sons, and sons are not put to death for fathers--each for his own sin, they are put to death. 
So do not blame yourself, mourn your dead for thirty days and move on with your life!
CLV Dt 30:19 Today I call the heavens and the earth to testify against you: Life and death I have put before you, the blessing and the malediction. Now choose life that you may live, you and your seed,
CLV Dt 30:20 by loving Yahweh your Elohim, hearkening to His voice and clinging to Him (for that means life to you and prolonging of your days) so that you may dwell on the ground about which Yahweh had sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, to give to them.

Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Tabernacle Tent Coverings

Here are couple of issues I wanted to record:

First of all, Tabernacle Tent coverings were made out of organic materials (i.e goat's hair and leather) so it is unclear from the text how they keep the Coverings from naturally disintegrating. The logical assumption would be to assume that they would repair or even replace the Coverings when they would rip or wear off.

The second issue is a pitch to the roof which does not seem to provide adequate water runoff during rains. So I was wondering how this issue can be justified by the text and how wandering Hebrews addressed it.

Here is a picture of the Tabernacle roof. As you can see its not really flat but bending downward due to its own weight. Water would accumulate in these bendings.

Another issue is leveling the structure. Even small grade would prohibit Tabernacle erection. Most likely, they traveled from dry lake bed to dry lake bed, which are abundant in the deserts. This would allow them to have a relatively flat surface to setup the Tabernacle upon, and also enough space for the Camp.

Why there are so few Jews right now?

Why there are so few Jews (14 million) if we were promised to be multiplied as "stars of heavens" (Gen 22:17, Gen 26:4 e.t.c) which numbers in billions of billions?

The answers are in the Written Torah of'course. 

First of all, Jews (Hebrews to be more specific, as Judah is just one tribe) are not numerous people:

YLT Dt 7:7  'Not because of your being more numerous than any of the peoples hath Jehovah delighted in you, and fixeth on you, for ye are the least of all the peoples, 
YLT Dt 7:8 but because of Jehovah's loving you, and because of His keeping the oath which He hath sworn to your fathers, hath Jehovah brought you out by a strong hand, and doth ransom you from a house of servants, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
Torah calls Hebrews "the least of all the peoples".

Secondly, Jews do not follow Written Torah. They follow their traditions and so-called Oral Torah. This is why Written Torah says the following:
YLT Dt 4:27 and Jehovah hath scattered you among the peoples, and ye have been left few in number among the nations, whither Jehovah leadeth you, 
YLT Dt 28:62 and ye have been left with few men, instead of which ye have been as stars of the heavens for multitude, because thou hast not hearkened to the voice of Jehovah thy God.
As you can see, this questions is answered directly in the Torah. Torah says more:
YLT Dt 9:4  'Thou dost not speak in thy heart (in Jehovah thy God's driving them away from before thee), saying, For my righteousness hath Jehovah brought me in to possess this land, seeing for the wickedness of these nations is Jehovah dispossessing them from thy presence; 
YLT Dt 9:5 not for thy righteousness, and for the uprightness of thy heart, art thou going in to possess their land; but for the wickedness of these nations is Jehovah thy God dispossessing them from before thee; and in order to establish the word which Jehovah hath sworn to thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob;
Even under Moses, Hebrews rebelled and disobeyed the commandments, so the only reason why God did not destroy them was because He gave an oath to our forefather Abraham.
YLT Lv 26:43  'And--the land is left of them, and doth enjoy its sabbaths, in the desolation without them, and they accept the punishment of their iniquity, because, even because, against My judgments they have kicked, and My statutes hath their soul loathed, 
YLT Lv 26:44 and also even this, in their being in the land of their enemies, I have not rejected them, nor have I loathed them, to consume them, to break My covenant with them; for I am Jehovah their God;--
I hope this answers this question clearly. 

Monday, January 18, 2016

Exodus 16:18 Illustration by Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of, in which she shows how it was possible to do what is described in Exodus 16:18. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at


[Aleksandr Sigalov:] Exodus 16:18 says the following:
YLT Ex 16:18 and they measure with an omer, and he who is gathering much hath nothing over, and he who is gathering little hath no lack, each according to his eating they have gathered.
This was possible because adults have large handfuls and children have small ones. You can eat what you can grab with both hands so to speak. Omer was proportional to human body, just like cubit which is arm length.

[Shelley Houser]: My children are ages 8 and 9. With one, we tried to do repeatable, level double handfuls measurement. With another, we tried to do more of a max-min measurement. I had him just randomly scoop out a double-handfuls, and as long as he could transfer the amount to another bowl without spilling it, it counted as a valid measurement.

Child One:
Trial 1.  1/2 C + 2 Tablespoons  (scant 3/4 C)
Trial 2.  3/4 C level exact
Trial 3.  3/4 C level exact.

Child Two:
Trial 1.  1/2 C + 3 Tablespoons (very nearly 3/4 C level, but just a bit under)
Trial 2.  3/4 C level exact.
Trial 3.  3/4 C + 2 Tablespoons (somewhere between 3/4 C and 1 C)
Trial 4.  3/4 C level  exact.

Without doing the exact standard deviation, it looks like the average is 3/4 C plus or minus 2 Tablespoons.

On the picture, double hands-full, level scoop by a first child, which is roughly 25% less than adult portion of 1 Cup.

You can use this web site to see that 25% less is perfect amount for a 9 year old. This confirms the theory experimentally.

Friday, January 15, 2016

Who could enter the Tabernacle?

Aaron and his descendants were designated as priests to do the ritual service in the Tabernacle (Exodus 28:1). The more menial labor of the Tabernacle was assigned to the rest of the tribe of Levi (Numbers 1:47-53).

In general, a person offering an animal was to bring it to the door of the Tent of Meeting. This seems to mean the entrance into the Tent, into the Holy Place, suggesting that the the person making the offering was to bring it inside the courtyard, but outside of (in front of) the curtain or screen (the parochet, Exodus 26:36) separating the Holy Place from the Courtyard.

Also, the descriptions of some rituals seem to indicate proximity to the Altar of Burnt Offering. See Leviticus 1:11.

However, after the events described in Numbers 17, the people say that anyone who comes near to the Tabernacle will die (Numbers 17:27-28, 17:12-13). 

Numbers 18:22-23 states:
YLT Num 18:22  'And the sons of Israel come no more near unto the tent of meeting, to bear sin, to die, 
YLT Num 18:23 and the Levites have done the service of the tent of meeting, and they--they bear their iniquity; a statute age-during to your generations, that in the midst of the sons of Israel they have no inheritance; 
YLT Num 18:24 but the tithe of the sons of Israel which they lift up to Jehovah, a heave-offering, I have given to the Levites for inheritance; therefore I have said of them, In the midst of the sons of Israel they have no inheritance.
This means that people (non-Levites) were allowed to come to the Tabernacle only for ritual purposes. Otherwise, they could not approach the Tabernacle under the threat of death.

Aliens in the Torah

A few people asked me if there is a reference to aliens in the Written Torah. Yes, there is. It is Genesis 6:1-4
YLT Gn 6:1 And it cometh to pass that mankind have begun to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters have been born to them, 
YLT Gn 6:2 and sons of God see the daughters of men that they are fair, and they take to themselves women of all whom they have chosen. 
YLT Gn 6:3 And Jehovah saith,  'My Spirit doth not strive in man--to the age; in their erring they are flesh:'  and his days have been an hundred and twenty years. 
YLT Gn 6:4 The fallen ones were in the earth in those days, and even afterwards when sons of God come in unto daughters of men, and they have borne to them--they are the heroes, who, from of old, are the men of name.
As you can see from these verses, aliens are referred to as "sons of God" or "sons of Elohim", as well as "ha-nefilim" which literally means "the distinguished ones ". YLT translates it as "fallen ones" as one of the opinions.

As you can see from the verses, they intermarried with human females and produced superior offsprings.

So apparently, we are not alone in the universe after all. 

Wednesday, January 13, 2016

About The Name of God

So here are some more of my thoughts about the name of God. 

Traditional pronunciation seems to be "Yahweh". This is true for both English and Russian languages.

However, second and fourth letters of the name are the same so they need to form the same sound. So according to this, the name would be "Yahwah".

Many words that use vav (third letter of the name) have the vowel point at its left which makes it the "u" sound. This is accepted as a normal Hebrew construction (when not dealing with the Name). This means that most proper pronunciation of the name should be "Yahuah" with "u" sound instead of "w".

The second argument would be the word Yahudah (יהודה). As you can see, it uses all the letters used in the Name. This means that we can deduce proper pronunciation from this word. Since we know for sure that Yahudah is pronounced with "u" not "w", we can most certainly say that Yahuah should also be pronounced with "u" and not "w". Just say Yahudah without Dalet (d). It will be Yahuah.

The emphasis should be on the second syllable (yahUah).

This is my current and best understanding of the name.

I was also told that this is how prophets have pronounced it. I do not know if this is true though.

Friday, January 8, 2016

Baking Leavened Manna Bread with Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of, in which she tries to bake Manna Bread that Hebrews had during the desert wanderings. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at


Hello Friends,

This is a continuation of my earlier post on Simulated Manna. In the last post, we developed a recipe by looking at Bible passages, and also discussed various ways of cooking or baking the unleavened dough. If you missed it, and would like to read it, click here.

Today, we will focus on developing a recipe and method for making a leavened version of this simulated Manna.  We know that the Children of Israel were familiar with yeast breads, and knew how to make them because of the instructions given in Leviticus 23:15 for the First Fruits bread that was supposed to be prepared from the new wheat harvest.
YLT Lv 23:15 'And ye have numbered to you from the morrow of the sabbath, from the day of your bringing in the sheaf of the wave-offering: they are seven perfect sabbaths;
As discussed in the previous post, we also see from Numbers 11:8 and Exodus 16:31 that the manna was not in a form ready to eat, but needed to be prepared by milling or grinding first, and then either baked, possibly pan-fried, or boiled.
YLT Num 11:7 And the manna is as coriander seed, and its aspect as the aspect of bdolach; 
YLT Num 11:8 the people have turned aside and gathered it, and ground it with millstones, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pan, and made it cakes, and its taste hath been as the taste of the moisture of oil.
YLT Ex 16:31 and the house of Israel call its name Manna, and it is as coriander seed, white; and its taste is as a cake with honey.
So, we will explore a possible recipe for a yeast version of this simulated manna and see how it may have looked and tasted.

The Flour: 

As discussed above, and in my previous post, the manna seems like it was more like a seed, than a ready-to-eat bread.  It is described as being like coriander seed, but since coriander seed has no gluten and will not stick to itself on it's own, we will use wheat as our seed to grind.  But how much to grind?  

Exodus 16:17  tells us each person gathered an omer. 
YLT Ex 16:17 And the sons of Israel do so, and they gather, he who is gathering much, and he who is gathering little;
Aleksandr has proposed this is equivalent to 1 US cup (see his previous post link), so we will measure out 1 US Cup of wheat berries for our test recipe. There are two types of wheat berries commonly available to grind:  hard red wheat, and soft white wheat.  The hard red wheat has a higher gluten content, and is more suitable for yeast breads.  So, I am going to use that for our yeast bread.  In my previous post, I showed how easily the coriander is crushed in a mortar and pestle, compared with how difficult the wheat is. I took the easy way out, and used my electric mill to grind this wheat.

This produced 1.5 C of wheat flour. Soft white wheat produced approximately 1.75 C (see previous post).

Preparing the Yeast:

Since I now know my amount of flour, the next step is to get the yeast ready. If you are not familiar with baking yeast breads, there are two important things to know about preparing the yeast. The first is that the yeast like warm water, but not too hot. Run the tap water until you feel that it is comfortably warm, but not too hot that you would like to pull your hand out of the stream after a few seconds. They say to use 110 degree water, but most cooks do not have a thermometer handy to use. It's better to err on the side of too cold than too warm. The second thing is that yeast love to eat sugars, and that is what is used to produce the carbon dioxide they expel, which raises the dough. So, put the sugars for the recipe in with the yeast when you are waking them up. If there are no extra sugars in your recipe, sometimes a bit of extra flour is put in with the yeast, to give it something to eat right away. 

To determine how much yeast to use, I went to Yeast & Baking Lessons - Domestic Baking Lessons - Yeast Conversion Table | Red Star Yeast. Since I have 0-4 C of flour, they recommend 2 + 1/4 teaspoons of yeast.

This is the trickiest part of the recipe: Deciding how much water to add to the yeast to activate it, without adding too much to overwhelm the amount of flour you are using. If you have an abundance of water and flour, it doesn't matter quite so much, because you can add a bit more of either ingredient to make the correct texture. However, since we are using a fixed amount of flour, it is more critical we get the water right this time. I made a first guess of 1/4 C, and it was too little.  I added more water, and it overwhelmed the flour, and I had to add about another 1/2 C of flour to compensate. So, on the next trial, I settled on 1/2 C of water, and it seemed to be just perfect (today). Stir to activate the yeast. 

I am using the same 2 Tablespoons of honey used in the unleavened manna recipe, but after tasting it, it doesn't taste very sweet, because the yeast ate a lot of it. The real manna likely had more sweetener in it, and it would increase the calories, too. You can add more honey in this recipe without fear of it overwhelming the structure of the wheat. Add the honey, and stir to distribute.

The Flavorings:

I am including 1/2 teaspoon of salt, mostly for flavor, but it is also worthy to notice that the grain offerings that were supposed to be brought with the sacrifices were to include salt in them. See Leviticus 2:13  
YLT Lv 2:13 And every offering--thy present--with salt thou dost season, and thou dost not let the salt of the covenant of thy God cease from thy present; with all thine offerings thou dost bring near salt.
Since coriander seed is mentioned, we will add some of that, also.  However, the manna may have only resembled the coriander seed in size and shape, ease of crushing, etc., and would not necessisarily have had to taste like coriander, according to these verses.  I added about 1 Tablespoon of crushed coriander seeds. Mix well.

Adding the yeast:

It's time to add the yeast. The yeast should be fully awake now, and starting to produce carbon dioxide gas.  Look at your bowl. If it doesn't look bubbly on top, then your yeast is bad, and you should start over with new yeast. If it looks foamy and smells like yeast, then add the yeast to the dry ingredients. Mix well.

Adding sufficient calories:

Since we know this bread was the main part of their caloric intake, it has to be fairly high in calories. One way to accomplish this, in a fairly small amount of food, is to have it be rich in fats and sugars. We can see that the manna was described in both these ways by looking at Exodus 16:31 and Numbers 11:8
YLT Ex 16:31 and the house of Israel call its name Manna, and it is as coriander seed, white; and its taste is as a cake with honey.
YLT Num 11:8 the people have turned aside and gathered it, and ground it with millstones, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pan, and made it cakes, and its taste hath been as the taste of the moisture of oil.
So, I am going to add an ample amount of oil. 1/4 C now, and at least 1/4-1/2 C later, in the dough kneading and preparing of the loaves.

Mixing and kneading:

As I mentioned earlier, the water is a tricky part of this recipe. Here is a picture showing the first batch I made. The water and oil I had previously added were too much for the amount of flour in the bowl.  If you see this, then it's too wet, and you should put in more flour. Since I had to add about 1/2 C to get this to the right consistency, I started over with the correct amount of flour, and reduced the water to 1/2 C. Notice the dough will make a scrappy ball, and the characteristic white patches on the outside of the dough, showing there is enough water with the flour for gluten development.

Put the dough ball on a well-oiled surface, and knead 6-10 minutes. Basically, you fold and punch the dough, until you see the ball get more elastic, smooth, and will pass the "window pane test", which I will now explain. 

The Window Pane Test:

This is a quick test to see if you are finished kneading or not. Take a small pinch off the dough ball and flatten it out. If it breaks or is too sticky to do that in your hand, you are not finished kneading. If it looks like this, then it is at least hopeful that you are finished. Next, take your fingers, and start spreading out the disc, like a miniature pizza, and see if it will stretch without breaking. If it tears at this point, you need to knead. You are finished when you can stretch the dough out thin enough that when you hold it up to the light, you can see some light passing through the dough. You can see the light coming through, though, and there are no rips in the dough.  You are ready to let this rise.

Raising the dough:

Put the dough in a well-greased bowl, put a little oil on the top of the dough, and cover. Let rest at least 10 minutes, or let rise until doubled. I usually just let it rest 10 minutes and go on.

Shaping the loaves:

Since this is going to be a high-fat dough, and noting the other loaf shape my brother suggested (see my other post), this dough preparation is going to be somewhat like a croissant.  First, uncover the dough,and put it on a well-oiled surface. Flatten it out with your hand. Take a rolling pin, and roll it to about 1/4 inch thick. Spread a liberal amount of oil on the dough, and fold it in half. Spread oil on the dough, and fold it in half again.Spread oil on that, and fold in thirds. Take the rolling pin, and roll it out to 1/4 inch thick again. Repeat the process described above, and roll out again the third time.  If you want even more flakiness and internal structure in the final loaves, repeat the process yet again. When you've finished this step, you should have a rectangle, that is 1/4 inch thick.

Since we are trying to show the amount of food one could eat in a day from 1 C of wheat berries, I will make 8 little loaves. This will serve as 2 for breakfast, 2 for lunch, 2 for supper, and 2 for snacks during the day. So, I cut the dough into 8 approximately equal pieces.

Take each piece, and roll it out a bit flatter. Spread oil on it, and fold it in half, as you did the larger dough piece. Spread oil on that exposed surface, and fold it in thirds, like you did for the larger dough piece. Place on a greased cookie sheet to rise. 

Continue with the other 7 pieces. Cover, and let rise about an hour, or until doubled. Ours raised about 1.5 hours. 

Bake in 350 degree oven for about 10 minutes.  Reduce heat to 325, and bake another 5-6 minutes, or until the tops are just golden brown, and the bottoms are nicely browned.  

Top will still be soft.

Cool the rolls on a cooling rack.

The structure of these rolls is very soft and springy on the inside. They will compress down, and spring back up to their original size. 

So, the finished rolls or loaves look like this. This is one day's ration.

The finished rolls were of arbitrary size, but they had the following masses:

1.  66 g
2.  45 g
3.  43 g
4.  36 g
5.  60 g
6.  49 g
7.  56 g
8.  68 g

Total:  423 g of food. 

Final Recipe and Nutritional Analysis.

The final recipe is as follows:

1.5 C whole wheat flour
2 + 1/4 teaspoon active dry yeast
1/2 C warm water
2 Tablespoons honey
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 Tablespoon crushed coriander (or to taste)
1/4 C olive oil (have 1 to 1 1/4 C available)


Measure out the yeast into a small bowl. Add the warm water, and stir. Add the 2 Tablespoons of honey to the yeast and stir. Set aside.

Measure out the flour into a medium mixing bowl. Add the salt and crushed coriander to the flour and mix well. When the yeast is foamy, add it to the flour bowl and stir. Add the oil, and mix well. The dough should pull together to make a scrappy ball, and be able to be kneaded. If it is too dry, add a bit more water. If it is too wet, then add a bit more flour. Place the dough on a well-oiled table surface, and knead 6-10 minutes, or until ball is smooth and satiny, and will pass the window pane test. (Stretch a small ball of dough thinly enough to see some light through it, without it tearing.). Place the dough into a well-oiled bowl, and put some oil on the top. Cover and let rest at least 10 minutes, or until double, if desired. Put on oiled surface and flatten. Roll out with a rolling pin to 1/4 inch thick. Pour olive oil over the dough and spread out. Fold in half. Spread oil over the surface and fold in half again, to make a long rectangle. Spread oil over the surface, and fold in thirds, to make a folded square that resembles a cinnamon roll. Take the rolling pin, and mash down the folded square, and roll it out to a rectangle that is 1/4-inch thick again. Repeat the process above of oiling the surface, folding in half, in half again, and in thirds. Repeat this again, if desired, for flaky texture. When you have repeated this as many times as you desire, roll the dough out to the rectangle 1/4-inch thick again. Cut into 8 equal parts. To shape each piece, roll it out a bit thinner, and fold it exactly as you did the larger piece of dough. Place folded square seam down on a greased cookie sheet. Repeat for the other pieces. Cover and let rise for 1 hour, or until doubled. Bake at 350 for 10-15 minutes, or until lightly golden brown on top, and browned on the bottom. You may need to turn the temperature down to 325, if it seems to be baking too quickly. Cool on cooling rack. Makes 8 dinner-sized rolls.

Nutritional Analysis: This is a bit difficult to analyze, since I didn't measure the exact amount of oil used in all the kneading and folding. I estimate, though that the total oil was at least 1 C, and perhaps up to 1.25 C. I am using 1 C olive oil in the recipe analysis. The total calories were calculated as 2691 calories, as found at

This would be more than sufficient for a day's ration of calories.  These were delicious, but when eating these, though, they seemed to call out for milk or more butter, so they are not nutritionally complete in themselves.  I'm sure God's bread was better.

Thanks for spending this time with me,

Shelley Houser,
Chemist, enthusiastic cook, and home schooling mom

Who wrote the Written Torah?

Let's take a look at who wrote the Written Torah. It is Exodus 24:12
YLT Ex 24:12 . And Jehovah saith unto Moses,  'Come up unto Me to the mount, and be there, and I give to thee the tables of stone, and the law, and the command, which I have written to direct them.'
As you can see, Moses received TWO things. Tablets of Stone with the 10 commandments on them. And LAW and COMMANDMENT which HE (God) wrote. Everything was written. There was nothing oral given to Moses.

So apparently Moses was in the possession of the scroll of the Torah that God Himself wrote. 

This fits well with my theory about messianic event, because it seems that the law gets so corrupted (as it is now) that it needs to be re-given every cycle, as well as the Tablets which are currently lost.

Please note that there is absolutely no mention of any other Torah like Jews claim. There is no concept or mentioning of the Oral Torah anywhere in the Written Torah. This is pure Rabbinic invention that only keeps most Orthodox Jews away from the Law of God.

How many commandments are in the Written Torah?

Jewish tradition says that there are 613 commandments. This is absolutely wrong.

THERE ARE ONLY 10 COMMANDMENTS in the Written Torah. 

See Ex 34:28, Deut 4:13 and Deut 10:4

All other commandments are explanations and clarifications of the 10. They can't be really counted because they are all interconnected. In a way, there is infinite number of commandments. This is why Torah can be interpreted in many different ways and this is why it can fit any time, any epoch.

The 10 commandments are called Covenant at Horeb (Deut 29:1).

Thursday, January 7, 2016

Update about my Modern Literal Torah Translation

I wanted to publish my files for my Modern Literal Torah translation because I can't continue working on it at the moment. Please go to the link below to download the data files.

If someone could help me finish the translation, I would really appreciate it. Otherwise, enjoy the files. Perhaps they will be useful to someone.

Baking Unleavened Manna Bread with Shelley Houser

This is a guest post by my friend Shelley Houser of, in which she tries to bake Manna Bread that Hebrews had during the desert wanderings. This is an abridged version, so go to her web site for more details or email her at


Sometimes, actually trying what is described in a Bible passage helps us understand more about it, than just reading the words.  Today, let's take a closer look at the description of the manna, and how the children of Israel prepared it, and see if we can try to reproduce something like it in modern times.  Of course, since this was bread from YHWH, we are not going to know exactly what it was like, but we can perhaps get a better idea of what it may have been like, by trying to duplicate what is in the verses.

The first description of manna we want to examine is Exodus 16:31:
YLT Ex 16:31 and the house of Israel call its name Manna, and it is as coriander seed, white; and its taste is as a cake with honey.

I couldn't find any white coriander seed, but here is a photo of some yellow coriander seed.  I also have shown how easily it crushes in a mortar and pestle. This is about 1/2 Tablespoon crushed about 10 times with the pestle.  It was not too stressful to crush.

There are a few ways that the manna could be like coriander.  The most  obvious would be in size and shape, but perhaps it was also like it in taste, or ease of crushing.   We also get a hint of how they served it in the description of "wafers", or thin baked crackers, and that it was sweet, like honey. 

Since coriander itself has no gluten, or way to stick together by itself to make wafers, I am going to compare the rest of the manna descriptions to what we can do with wheat.
We get another clue of what manna was like in Numbers 11:7
YLT Num 11:7 And the manna is as coriander seed, and its aspect as the aspect of bdolach;
Here we see another reference to coriander seed, but this time the color is listed as bdellium.

[Aleksandr Sigalov]: Bdeliium or bdolach is not correct translation of the word "habedolach". Most likely here it means quarts, because gold is usually found in quartz deposits. See Genesis 2:12. Here is a picture of how each "seed" or "grain" of Manna looked like:

We next get a clue as to the properties of manna, in Numbers 11:8, and what they did with it to prepare it for eating.
YLT Num 11:8 the people have turned aside and gathered it, and ground it with millstones, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pan, and made it cakes, and its taste hath been as the taste of the moisture of oil.
So, it seems that the manna itself was more like a seed, and needed some preparation before it was eaten.   This would be opposed to the idea that it was already in a form ready to be eaten.  We can compare that to wheat or barley.  Of course, one can eat raw wheat seeds, but it is generally preferred to process the seeds in some way before we eat them.

Here I am showing hard red wheat, in the same mortar and pestle, and after I have tried to crush it 10 times.  Wow!  It's really tough.  I got a new appreciation of what the children of Israel had to do every day before they could eat their bread.  This also gave me the idea that perhaps they were comparing the ease of crushing with coriander seeds.  Let's hope so!  I gave up on hand crushing this, and pulled out my grain mill.  But how much should we grind?  We find out in Exodus 16:15-18

YLT Ex 16:15 And the sons of Israel see, and say one unto another,  'What is it?'  for they have not known what it is; and Moses saith unto them,  'It is the bread which Jehovah hath given to you for food. 
YLT Ex 16:16  'This is the thing which Jehovah hath commanded: Gather of it each according to his eating, an omer for a poll; and the number of your persons, take ye each for those in his tent.' 
YLT Ex 16:17 And the sons of Israel do so, and they gather, he who is gathering much, and he who is gathering little; 
YLT Ex 16:18 and they measure with an omer, and he who is gathering much hath nothing over, and he who is gathering little hath no lack, each according to his eating they have gathered.
From Aleksandr's other posts, we are assuming an omer is about 8 ounces, or 1 US Cup.  

So, I measured out 1 C of hard red wheat and put it in my grinder.  It made 1 1/2 C of flour.

I also have a sample of soft white wheat here for grinding.  This type of modern wheat has less gluten than the hard red wheat, and so is perfectly suitable for unleavened bread, or pastries, where a lighter, softer crumb is desired.  

I measured out 1 Cup of the soft white wheat, and it produced nearly 1.75 C of flour, which is slightly more than the hard red wheat at 1.5 C.

So, we can see that the exact amount of flour may vary from a measured amount of the type of seed. However, if you want to try to test this recipe, then you can use 1.75 C of whole wheat pastry flour.

In this recipe, I added 1/2 teaspoon salt. I mainly did this for taste, but also in Leviticus 2:13, salt is included in the recipe for the unleavened bread that was used as the grain offering part of the sacrifices. 
YLT Lv 2:13 And every offering--thy present--with salt thou dost season, and thou dost not let the salt of the covenant of thy God cease from thy present; with all thine offerings thou dost bring near salt.
Since the description of the final bread made of the manna said it tasted as fresh oil in Numbers 11:8, I am including olive oil in our recipe. It sounds as if they may not have needed to add any oil to the manna "seeds". Many seeds today are oil-bearing, such as sunflower, flax, etc. and would not need to have extra oil added to make a tasty bread. However, since wheat is not one of these seeds, I added an ample amount of oil.
YLT Num 11:8 the people have turned aside and gathered it, and ground it with millstones, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pan, and made it cakes, and its taste hath been as the taste of the moisture of oil. 
The 1/4 C olive oil is somewhat arbitrary, but based on a rough equivalent to the recipe for unleavened bread given for the grain part of a lamb offering in Exodus 29:40:
YLT Ex 29:40 and a tenth deal of fine flour, mixed with beaten oil, a fourth part of a hin, and a libation, a fourth part of a hin, of wine, is for the one lamb.
From my previous studies of the hin, the best guess is between 2 and 3 Cups.  Therefore, 1/4 of a hin of oil per omer of flour would be about 1/2 C oil.  I knew the kneading and other dough preparation would take up some oil, so I put half of it in the dough, reserving about 1/4 C oil for the rest of the process.

Now, we will mix the oil into the flour, until it is all evenly distributed.  It will now feel like wet sand.

Recalling that in Exodus 16:31, the description of the manna was like "wafers made with honey", I am including 2 Tablespoons of honey in this recipe. Tasting this later, my family all agreed that this made it just slightly sweet, and could probably use at least double the honey, if it can be supported by the structure of the wheat flour. This will need a second recipe development session.

The dough should feel like sticky sand at this point. There is really no gluten development, but it will stick together because of the honey.

Now comes the trickiest part in any bread recipe:  adding just the right amount of water.  If you don't add enough, the bread will not develop enough gluten, and the bread will not hold together well, if at all, and you will end up with a crumbly bread, or just a pile of toasted flour.  If you add too much, then the dough will be too much like a batter, and it will not have structure to hold together, either. 

So, with any recipe, always add less water than what it says to start with, and then you can always add more later.  Alternatively, if you have the luxury of more flour, you can always adjust with more flour, too, if it is too wet.  In this case, since our flour is supposed to be fixed, I added water 1 tablespoon at a time, until I saw the characteristic white patches on the surface of the dough, and small white strands inside the dough that signify there is enough water present to develop the gluten sufficient to make a viable bread.  This might take some practice.  

In fact, I thought I was finished with this recipe at 4 Tablespoons, but later when I tried to knead it, and it just crumbled, I added another Tablespoon of water.  Here are some pictures of the almost-ready dough.   Notice the white patches on the outside of the dough, the small amount of milky-looking water along the edges of the bowl,  and the small white threads on the inside.  Total water added today: 5 Tablespoons.   

I also added the 1/2 Tablespoon of crushed coriander seed from the beginning of the post, to make the finished product taste like coriander.  We tasted it later, and it could easily have 2 or 3 Tablespoons of crushed coriander seed, depending on how strong of the flavor you want.

After trying to knead it, and it just crumbled, I added 1 more Tablespoon of water.

Now for the kneading. Some kneading is necessary, even in unleavened bread.  It just requires much less than yeast bread: on the order of 1-2 minutes of kneading, instead of 7-10 minutes. Put the dough ball on an oiled part of the table. Fold it over, push, and then fold it over again. Repeat until the dough ball is smooth and a bit stretchy, and can be rolled out without tearing. If it gets too sticky while you are kneading, scrape up the dough, and add more oil. You are finished when the dough ball is smooth and a bit stretchy, and will roll out without tearing or sticking too much to the table.  Make sure the table is well oiled before you roll it out.

We are now ready to roll out the dough, and get it ready for the different methods of cooking it. Since Numbers 11:8 mentions a few different ways they prepared it, I will cut the dough into 4 pieces.  We will explore 4 different methods of finishing this bread.

I am not a Hebrew scholar, so I need to rely on others' translations. By comparing several translations, I found at least 5 possible ways this manna could have been prepared. We will look at all of these now. Numbers 11:8

1.  King James Version: And the people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in pans, and made cakes of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil. 
2.  New International Version: The people went around gathering it, and then ground it in a hand mill or crushed it in a mortar. They cooked it in a pot or made it into loaves. And it tasted like something made with olive oil. 
3.  Wycliffe Translation: And the people went about, and gathered it, and brake it with a quernstone, either pounded it in a mortar, and seethed it in a pot (and boiled it in a pot); and made thereof little cakes of the (same) savour as of bread made with oil.
We get some more clues about how it was prepared in Exodus 16:31:
4. King James Version, for Exodus 16:31: And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.
And also, in Exodus 16:23:
5. King James Version: And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning. 
6. New International Version: He said to them, “This is what the Lord commanded: ‘Tomorrow is to be a day of sabbath rest, a holy sabbath to the Lord. So bake what you want to bake and boil what you want to boil. Save whatever is left and keep it until morning.’”

It seems it could have been baked in what we would use as our ovens in at least 3 ways:

1.  In thin wafers (Exodus 16:31)
2.  In loaves (Numbers 11:8)
3.  In little cakes (Numbers 11:8)

It also could have been either cooked or boiled with top heat (like our stove tops today) in two possible ways:

1.  Pan-fried (Numbers 11:8, combining NIV "cooked in pots", and KJV "baked in pans")
2.  Boiled with water (Numbers 11:8, Wycliffe, also Exodus 16:23, in using the words "seethe", and "boil")

We will now take our prepared dough, and try out all of these methods, and see how it performs.  I've divided up the dough into 4 parts.  This would be approximately what each person would eat for 4 meals each day, assuming the omer is 1 C.  I will use one method for each of 3 parts of the baking possibilities, but subdivide the last part into the two stove-top methods, since the pan-fried option seems to be the weakest interpretation.

Part 1:  Breakfast of thin wafers (about 18 1-inch wafers)

Since they had to gather it day by day, there would be no usable leftovers from yesterday.  After gathering the manna and grinding it up, the fastest method would probably be baking it in thin wafers.  I found this out the hard way!  I finished preparing all of the baking methods, and put the pan into the oven while I was working on the boiling and pan frying methods.  Usually, I have about 15 minutes when baking unleavened bread.  After only 5 minutes, I checked on the pan, and the wafers were pretty well burned!  Sigh!  The added honey in this makes it cook and brown very much faster than bread baking without it, which I had forgotten.  

Preparing thin wafers is extremely easy:  Take the rolled dough, and cut it into small squares.  Place on greased cookie sheet and bake 2-3 minutes in 350 degree oven. 

Part 2:  Lunch of 1 loaf

I had been working on depicting the showbread for our illustrated guide of Exodus (, and showed the tradtional American-style of loaves.  My brother thought there was a more authentic Mid-Eastern loaf style that he told me about. I don't know which is the more authentic, but I tried out his way for this post. You can shape it however you wish. For this style shown here, take the rolled out dough, and fold it in half, and then in half again. Then take the rolling pin and squash the folded loaf, and roll it out again. Then, fold the dough in half, and in half or thirds again, depending on how big of a loaf you have. The finished loaf looks somewhat like a folded cinnamon roll, only without the cinnamon. Bake in 350 oven for 4-5 minutes

Part 3: Mid-afternoon Snack:   Little cakes (4)

This method is like making little cookies out of the dough.  These were my personal favorite, of all the methods we will make.  Take the dough, cut into 4 pieces, and roll into little balls, like Mexican wedding cookies.  You may flatten the tops a bit with your fingers, if you wish.  Bake in 350 oven for 3-4 minutes.

Now to finish up our cooking methods, by showing the two possible ways of cooking them on the stove top.

Part 4:  Supper of boiled noodles (about 10 medium noodles)

These were a bit strange for me, because they are a bit sweet, and I am not used to sweet noodles. Take the rolled dough and cut into strips. Place in boiling, salted water for about 1 minute, or until they begin to float. Turn down heat, and simmer another 5 minutes or so, until the noodles are firm enough to stay together. This is like making fresh pasta, if you've ever done that before. Either drain the water off, or scoop out the noodles with a slotted spoon. You may rinse the noodles in cool water, if desired. Serve on plate. (show picture 1,2,3, 4, 5)

Part 5: Bedtime snack:  Pan-fried crackers. (4 crackers)

These taste really good, and were the preferred method for my husband and two boys.  Take the dough and cut into medium rectangles.  Heat about 1-2 Tablespoons of olive oil in a skillet, and place the dough in the pan.  Brown 1-2 minutes on each side.  Be observant that they do not burn.  The added honey in the dough made them brown around the edges faster than they cooked in the middle. You may need to turn the heat down to medium-low, so they cook well before they burn. Drain on paper towels. Best if eaten while still warm, but still very good after they are cooled.

Final Recipe and Nutritional Analysis:

Here is a picture of the baking pan after it had been in the oven about 5 minutes. I was pretty horrified that the wafers were already burned.  However, they still had a decent flavor, and we ate them anyway.  This begs the question, what did the Israelites do if they burned their food? 

Here is a picture of what the 1 cup of wheat berries would produce for a day's ration.

In summary, here is the final recipe for Unleavened Simulated Manna (With one omer = 1 US Cup of soft-white wheat berries)

1.75 C (1 3/4) Cups of whole wheat flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 C olive oil (with another approx. 1/4 C for kneading)
2 Tablespoons honey
1/2 Tablespoon (or to taste) crushed coriander seeds
4-5 Tablespoons water (to dough consistency)

Mix flour, salt, and coriander in small bowl. Add olive oil and mix to coat the flour. Add the honey and mix thoroughly. Add the water by tablespoons until it is a medium soft dough consistency. Knead on oiled surface 1-2 minutes, or until the dough ball can be rolled out into a 1/4-inch thin rectangle or square.  

Thin wafers:  Cut into 1-inch squares.  Bake at 350 for 2-3 minutes.  Check often.

Loaf: Fold in fourths and roll out again. Fold in half and either half or thirds again. Bake at 350 for 4-5 minutes, or until browned on top and bottom.

Cookies: Roll into 1-inch balls. Bake at 350 for 4-5 minutes, or until browned on top and bottom.

Noodles: Cut into desired width and length strips. Boil in salted water for 5-6 minutes, or until desired tenderness. Drain and rinse, if desired.

Pan fried crackers: Cut dough into 1 x 2 inch rectangles. Heat oil in skillet, and brown on each side 1-2 minutes. Drain on paper towels.

A nutritional analysis of this recipe, gives 1803 Kcal, according to Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis –,  which is sufficient for many people, but a bit on the low side of a 2000 Kcal /day diet.

This could be bumped up to the 2000 Kcal/day diet by adding more honey, or more oil.
I will post a method for making yeast-bread version of this recipe later.  It is exceptionally yummy, and you will want to try this!

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