Correct Hebrew Calendar



Please also see a sister article (about Shabbat) which provides additional information.

What is the real Torah calendar? I think the answer is - Lunar Shabbat.

Please note, that my theory is different from standard Lunar Shabbat theory, which actually makes my calendar work and in line with the Written Torah and Moon Phases.

Traditional 7th day Shabbat is definitely wrong very simply because Solar Year (365.25 days), Lunar Year (354 days) and Lunar Months (~29.5 days) are not divisible by 7. This is not an issue for my calendar because my calendar does not use a perpetually continuous 7-day cycle.

7th day Shabbat can't be proven because there is no evidence that we can use to prove it.  You can't prove that 7th day (or any other day) is the Shabbat. This is because 7th day Shabbat is wrong and you can't prove what is wrong. Not to mention that traditionally 7th day Shabbat falls on a day of a pagan deity.


Some of you have heard about Lunar Shabbat. I too was originally skeptical about this theory due to how the theory was presented by Christian groups. It did not work with the schedule of Yom Kippur and Counting of Omer. However, I was able to find the proof of Lunar Shabbat in the Torah, which is why I am writing this article.

Let's review what Torah says about the calendar:
YLT Gn 1:14 And God saith,  'Let luminaries be in the expanse of the heavens, to make a separation between the day and the night, then they have been for signs, and for appointed times(moedim), and for days and years, 
YLT Gn 1:15 and they have been for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth:'  and it is so. 
YLT Gn 1:16 And God maketh the two great luminaries, the great luminary for the rule of the day, and the small luminary--and the stars--for the rule of the night;
YLT Gn 1:17 and God giveth them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth, 
YLT Gn 1:18 and to rule over day and over night, and to make a separation between the light and the darkness; and God seeth that it is good; 
MLT Gn 1:19 and there is an evening, and there is a morning--day three.

As you can see, Gen 1:14 states that luminaries (our sun and moon primarily) were created among all other things to signify the appointed times (moedim), all of which are listed in Leviticus 23 and Numbers 28-29. Some Appointed Times(moedim) are Holy Meetings (miqraim qodashim) and they include 5 Torah Holidays, Weekly Shabbat and beginning of the months.

Sun and Moon is our OBSERVATIONAL FRAME OF REFERENCE - OUR CLOCK, set by God so that no one can mess with it, which is why we define all events relative to this system. Here is the wiki article for details. This is basic Physics stuff. You should know it if you finished High School. This means that this is not just Torah calendar or Lunar calendar, but rather the only possible correct way of telling time on this planet. So this observational frame of reference is the scientific way of doing things, which means that any normal and rational person should agree with it.

If you follow this system to calculate your birthday, you can see, for example, how the Moon and the Universe looked like on the day you were born!!! This is the only scientifically correct way to do it. All other methods and all other calendars are not in sync with the Universe and God.

Please note that Lunar Shabbat does not contradict "six days thou shalt labor and one you shall rest" (Exodus 20:8-11) requirement. This is because this statement does not imply perpetual continuity ("tamid" as in Ex 27:20). This statement simply tells us that we are NOT to work more than 6 days in a row. We clearly can have fewer work days in a week as traditional Yom Kippur week or 1st of the 7th-month show and as I will explain below. In fact, my calendar always has 6-1 weeks. The only exceptions are the end of the months when I have an incomplete week of 1 or 2 days. So unlike traditional Lunar Shabbat theory, I do not have weeks longer than 7 days.

Lunar Shabbat theory states that all Holy Meetings (which are also called Shabbats) are defined by phases of the Moon. I.e., New Moon (or first young moon), first quarter, full moon, last quarter and last old moon all signify Holy Meetings and/or weekly Shabbats.

The reason why Torah uses day's numbers instead of moon phases is that we can't rely only on Moon phases in some months due to the change in Lunar Cycle after the days of Peleg. This is why Torah only mentions New Moon and then we are to count days from it. If properly counted, all Shabbats will fall on major moon phases. Once again, we need to use both calculations/counting and moon observations to determine the Monthly Shabbats.

This means that Shabbats are always on the 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th of the lunar month. And this also means that all Holy Meetings fall on these days.

The lunar cycle is, of course, ~29.5 days, which means that every lunar month has 4 normal 7 days weeks and 1 incomplete(extra) week or Shabbat (29 days months, last Old Moon Shabbat is on 29th).

Or, 4 normal 7 days weeks and 1 incomplete week or Shabbat of 1 workday(30 days months, last Old Moon Shabbat is on 29th).

For the 5th Shabbat, we have a visual clue - last Old Moon. As soon as you see last Old Moon or the last crescent, it is the Shabbat. I think it is the right approach and so far everything adds up.

Here is the diagram of Lunar phases with Shabbats labeled in red:

As you can see, we have 5 Shabbats for 5 phases of the Moon:
  1. New Moon. Or, more specifically - First Young Moon (around 1-3%). I say First Young Moon and not New Moon because we need a visual clue for the phase. So, as soon as the new crescent of the moon appears - it is the Shabbat and the New Month.
  2. Waxing Quarter (Half-moon)
  3. Full Moon
  4. Waning Quarter (Half-moon)
  5. Last Old Moon (about 1-3%). This is because we need a visual clue. This moon happens right before it disappears. So when you see the Moon is almost gone, it is the Old Moon Shabbat.
So, as you can see, there is an issue of terminology. First new crescent of the Moon appears on First Young Moon, not on New Moon, yet we incorrectly (colloquially) call First Young Moon the New Moon.

HOWEVER, PLEASE NOTE: Regardless of the terminology used, on my calendar, New Moon (or first Young Moon) is a Shabbat and Holy Meeting. Even though New Moon is absent from the main list of Holy Meetings in Leviticus 23, New Moon is present in Numbers 28, namely Numbers 28:2 and Numbers 28:11 where it is called moed(meeting). So it undoubtedly originally was a Holy Meeting. This is a clear case of textual corruption, blatant editing by the rabbis and textual inconsistency.

1st of all months (the New Moon days) is the Shabbat and the Holy Meeting. This is confirmed by Lev 23:24 and Num 29:1 because it says that 1st of the 7th month is Shabbat and Holy Meeting, which means that all 1st of the months should be Shabbats and Holy Meetings.

The reason why Shabbat offerings are not mentioned in other Holy Meetings in Numbers 28-29 is that every Holy Meeting is ALWAYS the Shabbat, so there is no need to repeat the offering ten times in the description of each Meeting, it is implied. For example, in Numbers 29:32-34 there is no mentioning of a Shabbat offering, even though it is said explicitly to be the seventh day. Neither does it say it in Numbers 29:35-39. In fact, in Num 29:35 it clearly says that the 8th day of Sukkot is the Shabbat, not 7th.

Here is the diagram of all Holy Meetings:

Therefore, correct holy meetings are:
  1. 8th of the 1st Month - Taking of the Lamb (it is a Holy Meeting by default because it is 8th day Shabbat)
  2. 1st of the 7th Month - Yom Teruah - Day of the Blast.
  3. 15th-22nd of the 1st Month - Passover - 7 days we eat unleavened bread. And on the 8th day, it is a Day of Restraint / Yom Atzeret aka Shemini Atzeret (from Work of Slavery). So the Passover lasts for 8 days total. We eat unleavened for 7 days and we can eat normal bread on the 8th.
  4. Omer - Counting 50 days from Shabbat(earliest possible is 15th of the 1st month) to Shabbat. However, we start counting weeks/Shabbats from the morrow after the 1st Shabbat. So the earliest day we can start counting weeks/Shabbats of Omer is on the 16th of the 1st month, or on the morrow of any of following Shabbats if High Priest decides so due to harvest delay. Regardless, we count from Shabbat to Shabbat. 50th of Omer is a Holy Meeting and the Shabbat.
  5. 8th of the 7th Month - Yom Kippur. Falls on 1st Quarter Shabbat. Why it is on the 8th and NOT on the 10th see this post.
  6. 15th-22nd of the 7th Month - Sukkot. We dwell in self-made shelters of branches for 7 days. And on the 8th day, it is a Day of Restraint / Yom Atzeret aka Shemini Atzeret (from Work of Slavery). So the Sukkot lasts for 8 days total.
Circumcision, even though it does not happen on the moon phase but rather from the date of the baby birth, also seem to be related to these dates because it happens on the 8th day from baby's birth.

So, when you see all of these Moon phases - it is Shabbat and maybe a Holy Meeting. As you can see, these are perfect visual clues.

This is confirmed with Genesis 1:16, which states that the moon and stars are to "rule the night," meaning that they indicate Holy Meetings primarily during the night time, so we always know. Daytime moon, mostly visible during Full Moon (which is a Holy Meeting), is also there to remind us about these events, effectively telling us which day it is. Whereas the Sun is used to define beginning and end of the day(light) period, effectively telling us when a new day is beginning and ending.

Also, as you can see from Genesis 1:13, the moon was created in a 3rd-day phase so it would align with the rest of the creation week. Please see this post on why it is 3rd day and not 4th. So when you see 3rd-day moon in the 1st month, it is exactly how it looked like when God created our solar system.

Yom Kippur is the first problem with Lunar Shabbat because according to the Torah it does not fall on the standard four moon phases indicated above. On the 10th there is no moon phase. Yom Kippur as well as the commandment to choose Passover lamb traditionally happen on the 10th of the 1st and 7th lunar months. In reality, Yom Kippur and Taking of the Passover lamb happen on the 8th. This is a clear case of the corruption of the Torah text. If we assume that Yom Kippur falls on the 8th, then there is no problem, since it would fall on one of the moon phases.

Another reason why Yom Kippur happens on the 8th is the 1st of the 7th Month. 1st of the 7th Month is stated explicitly to be Shabbat and Holy Meeting, which means that the next Shabbat in the 7th month is the 8th. Yom Kippur is also stated to be Shabbat, which means that the only possible day for Yom Kippur is the 8th and not 10th. Also, the 8th is the only available Moon Phase in the 1st and 7th Months. All other moon phases are taken by other Holy Meetings in these months.

Basically, current Torah Yom Kippur date contradicts Genesis 1:14 in a sense that it is a moed without a phase and all moedim should fall on a moon phase as 7th month, for example, shows.

Let's look at the most important verse, which proves Lunar Shabbat:
YLT Lv 23:15 'And ye have numbered to you from the morrow of the sabbath, from the day of your bringing in the sheaf of the wave-offering: they are seven perfect sabbaths; 
Leviticus 23:15 has the key phrase that proves Lunar Shabbat. It is "seven perfect(or complete) sabbaths" or weeks. This means that there are "complete" Shabbats (weeks) and "incomplete" Shabbats (weeks). Torah does not appear to use this word accidentally here. You can compare this verse with a similar verse of Leviticus 25:8, where this word is not used.

We are explicitly commanded to count 7 COMPLETE weeks, which means that we would not count INCOMPLETE weeks. This puts Shavuot close to the Summer Solstice day. Connection to this astronomic event makes perfect sense, considering this was the day when the harvest was complete and when the second First Bread offering was brought.

So for example, we would have 29th Shabbat, then one regular day(when Moon is not visible), then New Moon (or first Young Moon) Shabbat. This is what incomplete week is. As I pointed out above, there is nothing wrong with splitting 7 day periods into parts because it happens in the traditional system too. For example, in the traditional system, a Shabbat usually divides Yom Kippur week or 1st of the 7th Month week.

So months have exactly 5 Shabbats, 4 complete Shabbats or weeks and 1 incomplete Shabbat or week sometimes. Lunar months have to be either 29 days long or 30 days long. 31 days months are not possible as New Moon(when it is not visible) does not last that long and the Lunar month is only 29.5 days on average.

The reason why I think it is possible to have two Shabbats in a row is because Exodus 16:29 explicitly tells us that we will be given "bread of days" or "bread of several days" (not "double bread", as traditional translations say) of daily bread the day before a Shabbat or Shabbats. So it seems to imply that they would get three times as much Manna before two Shabbats in a row. Compare this with Leviticus 25:20-22 where the land gives produce for three years, so it is possible that at the end of the months they would get three times as much Mann for 2 Shabbats in a row. This is the simplest interpretation that makes everything fit together very well.

Another thing to consider is that verses that describe the schedule of Mann in Exodus 16 tell us that this was happening between 15th and 22nd. Torah does not tell us the schedule of Mann at the end of the month and neither does it say that we can't have 2 Shabbats in a row or tripe amount of Mann at the end of the month.

There are exactly 60 Shabbats in a Hebrew Lunar year, each corresponding to the Pillar of the Tabernacle Courtyard. There are exactly 12 months in a Hebrew lunar year, but the 13th month is added if 1st day of the 1st Month happens before Spring Equinox. If 1st day of the 1st month is after Spring Equinox, we do not add a 13th month.

When there are 13 months, there are 65 Shabbats.

Torah year was originally 360 days every year, but due to Earth split and speeding up of the Moon cycle, current Torah year is 354 days with 12 months 29.5 days each and sometimes 383-384 (383.5 days), 13 months 29.5 days each in years with the embolismic month. We add embolismic month based on equinox as I will describe below.

Equinoxes and Solstices are used to determine the holy days. See my Ten commandments page for detailed table. However, please note that Torah holy days do not fall directly on Equinox or Solstice because of the change in the Solar and Lunar cycle after the days of Peleg.

Ripening (Abib) that determines Hebrew New Year and Agricultural New Year happens twice a year. In spring for a month (after spring equinox) when barley and wheat ripens. And in autumn for a month, when we gather fruits of the land.

They do not happen ON them, but rather RIGHT AFTER them because Solar and Lunar cycles are out of alignment. For example, 50th of Omer usually happens right after the summer solstice.

The reason why we use the equinoxes and solstices is that plant's cycles depend on them. Barley starts ripening ONLY AFTER Equinox because 12 hours of light/12 hours of darkness is the flowering/ripening cycle for plants like barley. So the barley switches from vegetative cycle to the flowering(ripening) cycle when the day becomes longer than 12 hours.

Same with Omer. The reason why 50th of Omer happens after summer solstice is because by that time all grains would switch to flowering cycle and would be ripe by the solstice's time. I hope this clarifies this issue.

Ripening of Barley is the secondary sign ONLY.

Anyway, to determine Hebrew New Year, we have to look at the spring equinox(Sun) and the Moon. The 1st month of the Hebrew year is always going to be the 1st lunar month (first New Moon) RIGHT AFTER Spring Equinox. Very simple.

Lunar Shabbat helps to gain new insights into the text. For example, Exodus 16:1 states that Hebrews arrived in the wilderness on fifteenth of the second month from Exodus from Egypt. Exodus 16:22-23 thus can be interpreted to say that the first Shabbat occurred on the 15+7=22nd day of the 2nd month since Exodus, on which no Mann would fall out for the first time. This proves that 15th and 22nd are Shabbats. Quite interesting, I think.

Originally, when Yahuah created the world, the Moon monthly cycle was exactly 30 days. This would produce exactly 360 days year, each year, every year, and there was no need to add the 13th month. This original order of things is encoded in the Tabernacle design. As you know from my blog, Tabernacle Courtyard was exactly 360 cubits in perimeter with 60 pillars. This is symbolic of original 360 days year and 60 original Shabbats. So what happened?

As I have discussed on my blog, due to the Earth corruption, God wanted to destroy everything, so He sent the flood upon the Earth. Only Noah escaped.

Noah traveled in the ark for exactly 150 days or exactly 5 months (5x30=150) as we see from Genesis 7:11, 8:3-4. However, if you will look at the Moon today, you will not get 150 days count between 2/17th and 7/17th - you will get only 148. Obviously, the cycle has changed. How?

Well, this is described in Genesis 10:25, where it says that in the days of Peleg "the earth was divided," meaning that the Pangea (one continent or one Earth) has split and drifted apart as we know it now. This obviously affected the Moon cycle, and according to the laws of physics, it sped it up to 29.5 days instead of 30 days a month. This is why we have a slightly different Calendar as I show it. This is why we have to add the 13th month and have two Shabbats in a row sometimes.

This is why we use the Sun and Moon to define the calendar and moedim.

It would be strange if our God, who is a creator of the entire universe, did not leave us a sign of His weekly Shabbats that He sanctified, blessed and made holy. 

Also, if one would get stuck on an uninhabited island (or otherwise lost track of time), there would be a sign (the phases of the moon) that would allow one to regain the orientation in time again and do not violate Torah by not observing Shabbat on the right day. Similarly, one can easily use the Moon to determine Shabbats at the poles or even in space.

Lunar Shabbat makes whole Torah calendar system simple and elegant, without a need for any complicated formulas or adjustments.

Here is a diagram of how this calendar works over a period of 100 years (2 Jubilees). As with all holy days, we count from Shabbat to Shabbat, in this case from Shabbat year to Shabbat year:

Blue circles - Jubilee years
Green circles - Shabbat years
Blank circles - regular years

Leviticus verse proves that the traditional weekly 7th day Shabbat that we have is not Torah based and simply an invention of the Pharisees. This is why one should follow the Sun and major moon phases to determine Shabbat and other Holy Meetings.

Consider the following arguments AGAINST traditional calendar:
  1. How come God did not leave us a sign for His greatest day, Shabbat, that He blessed and declared holy?
  2. How come in traditional system Shabbat is not connected to anything, unlike 1st of the Month is connected to the Moon, for example??? How does traditional calendar explain Genesis 1:14 passage? Shabbat and other Holy Meetings are definitely moedim!
  3. Have you seen how complex and idiotic traditional calendar is? See this Wiki article for details.
  4. What are Jews going to do in 1600 years when Passover will be in the summer due to calendar drift? 
  5. How traditional calendar explains 2 Shabbats or Shabbat+Holy Meeting in a row?
  6. The solar year is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds. This is not divisible by 7. How can we follow 7th day Shabbat if the following year we would be a few days off (sun-wise)?
  7. Where in the text does it say anything about 7th day Shabbat? Where does it say that we are to count 7 days periods continuously(tamid), w/o interruptions? 
  8. What about Yom Kippur? How does traditional calendar explain that Yom Kippur usually divides a work week into two parts (Yom Kippur is Shabbat)?
  9. What about 1st of the 7th Month??? Same problem as with Yom Kippur. 1st of the 7th Month is the Shabbat, so it divides traditional week into two incomplete weeks.
  10. Why does Yom Kippur does not have a sign like other Shabbats?
  11. Leviticus 23:32 says that Yom Kippur is Shabbat, however, in the traditional calendar it is rarely or never a Shabbat. How does traditional calendar explain this inconsistency? 
  12. There are exactly 60 Shabbats per year. How does traditional calendar explain Yom Kippur? Is it the 61st Shabbat in a year? Also, Tabernacle Courtyard only had 60 pillars, not 61.
  13. What does the word "complete" means in Leviticus 23:15?
  14. Why we are commanded to count 50 days of Omer if traditional weeks are all complete, and there is nothing to count really. My theory explains how. What about the traditional calendar?
  15. In Leviticus 23:24 it explicitly states that 1st of the 7th Month is the Shabbat. So how come, in the traditional system, other 1st of the Months are not necessarily Shabbats???
  16. How traditional calendar explains 150 days of Noah's journey in the Ark? The traditional calendar does not match.
  17. How many Shabbats per month and per year are in the calendar and why?
I also talked to Orthodox Jews and here is what they said:
"Before the current calendar was developed in post-Temple times, a completely different calendar system was used which was based on observations of the moon."  
"the calendar during the time of the mahn is not what we currently use." 
"when Sanhedrin becomes re-established when the next Temple gets rebuilt, we will return to that calendar, I suppose."
As you can see, Orthodox Jews cannot and won't do anything and just waiting for Messiah. This is very sad because Torah provides all necessary information to restore proper calendar.

Click here to see phases of the moon for your area.

Here is the Tutorial on how to create your own calendar.
Here is the Tutorial on how to determine your scientifically correct Birthday.

Click here for direct link to the calendar.


Basically, original Torah calendar assumes 360-day calendar, with 12 x 30 days months. Each month contains exactly 5 Shabbats (4 complete one and 1 incomplete one - 4x7+1x2=30). Total of 60 Shabbats every year. This way, we have a calendar that does not need extra months or any adjustments.

This calendar does not contradict questions #6 and #13 above. Noah's journey and Solar year (365.25 days) are the two tests Torah provides us to check the calendar. At this time, not a single calendar (mine included) passes those two tests defined by the Torah and nature due to change of the Sun and Moon cycles. It is very interesting that Solar and Lunar years are only different from original Torah year by 6 days. There is definitely a connection, we just need to figure out what it means.

There is also a connection between Tabernacle courtyard and the calendar. The courtyard perimeter was 360 cubits with 60 pillars. This symbolizes 360 days year with 60 yearly Shabbats. I am more than sure that layout of the Tabernacle can be used to "decipher" the original calendar. I just have not yet figured out how.

The clues to the division of Torah calendar months are in the Tabernacle Courtyard description. The ratios are as follows:

South Side: (100 days + 20 Shabbats) + North Side: (100 days + 20 Shabbats) + West Side: (50 days + 10 Shabbats) +  1st East Flank: (15 days + 3 Shabbats) + 2nd East Flank: (15 days + 3 Shabbats) + Gate: (20 days + 4 Shabbats)

Here is the more simple ratio:

Lunar Year + 6 days = Original Torah Year of 360 days = Solar Year - 6 days

And as I said above, direct Sun and Moon observations today do not show this original calendar anymore due to changes imposed on the monthly cycle of the Sun and Moon by a continent split in the days of Peleg.

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